Systematic Review

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2012) 66, 872–877; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.68; published online 20 June 2012

The effect of coffee consumption on serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

L Cai1, D Ma2, Y Zhang1, Z Liu1 and P Wang2

  1. 1Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China
  2. 2Department of Social Medicine and Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China

Correspondence: Dr D Ma, Department of Social Medicine and Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China. E-mail: defumapku@163.com

Received 29 February 2012; Revised 16 May 2012; Accepted 16 May 2012
Advance online publication 20 June 2012

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Abstract

Background/objectives:

 

Numbers of epidemiological studies assessing coffee consumption and serum lipids have yielded inconsistent results. We aimed to evaluate the effects of coffee intake on serum lipids.

Subjects/methods:

 

We searched several English and Chinese electronic databases up to September 2011 for randomized controlled trials of coffee on serum lipids. Weighted mean effect size was calculated for net changes in serum lipids by using random-effect models or fixed-effect models. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted to explore possible explanations for heterogeneity among trials.

Results:

 

Twelve studies conducted in Western countries with a total of 1017 subjects were identified. Meta-analyses showed, on average, drinking coffee for 45 days was associated with an increase of 8.1mg/dl (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5, 11.6; P<0.001) for total cholesterol (TC), 5.4mg/dl (95% CI: 1.4, 9.5; P=0.009) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and 12.6mg/dl (95% CI: 3.5, 12.6; P=0.007) for triglyceride (TG). The increase in TC were greater in trials using unfiltered coffee and caffeinated coffee as the treatment group. Those who had hyperlipidemia were more sensitive to the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee. Meta-regression analysis revealed a positive dose-response relation between coffee intake and TC, LDL-C and TG.

Conclusion:

 

The intake of coffee especially unfiltered coffee is contributed significantly to the increase in TC, LDL-C and TG, and the changes were related to the level of intake. Studies of coffee intake on serum lipids in Asian populations should be performed.

Keywords:

coffee; caffeine; lipids; meta-analysis; randomized controlled trials

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