Original Article

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, 508–513; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.291; published online 19 January 2011

Effects of oral ingestion of sucralose on gut hormone response and appetite in healthy normal-weight subjects

H E Ford1,2, V Peters1,2, N M Martin1, M L Sleeth1, M A Ghatei1, G S Frost1 and S R Bloom1

1Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK

Correspondence: Dr SR Bloom, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Imperial College London, 6th Floor, Commonwealth Building, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK. E-mail: s.bloom@imperial.ac.uk

2These authors contributed equally to this work.

Received 16 August 2010; Revised 1 November 2010; Accepted 9 November 2010; Published online 19 January 2011.

Contributors: HEF and VP designed the experiment, collected and analysed data and wrote the manuscript. NMM helped with the writing of the manuscript. MS contributed to the data analysis. MAG, GSF and SRB provided significant advice.

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Abstract

Background/Objective:

 

The sweet-taste receptor (T1r2+T1r3) is expressed by enteroendocrine L-cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Application of sucralose (a non-calorific, non-metabolisable sweetener) to L-cells in vitro stimulates glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 secretion, an effect that is inhibited with co-administration of a T1r2+T1r3 inhibitor. We conducted a randomised, single-blinded, crossover study in eight healthy subjects to investigate whether oral ingestion of sucralose could stimulate L-cell-derived GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY) release in vivo.

Methods:

 

Fasted subjects were studied on 4 study days in random order. Subjects consumed 50ml of either water, sucralose (0.083% w/v), a non-sweet, glucose-polymer matched for sweetness with sucralose addition (50% w/v maltodextrin+0.083% sucralose) or a modified sham-feeding protocol (MSF=oral stimulation) of sucralose (0.083% w/v). Appetite ratings and plasma GLP-1, PYY, insulin and glucose were measured at regular time points for 120min. At 120min, energy intake at a buffet meal was measured.

Results:

 

Sucralose ingestion did not increase plasma GLP-1 or PYY. MSF of sucralose did not elicit a cephalic phase response for insulin or GLP-1. Maltodextrin ingestion significantly increased insulin and glucose compared with water (P<0.001). Appetite ratings and energy intake were similar for all groups.

Conclusions:

 

At this dose, oral ingestion of sucralose does not increase plasma GLP-1 or PYY concentrations and hence, does not reduce appetite in healthy subjects. Oral stimulation with sucralose had no effect on GLP-1, insulin or appetite.

Keywords:

obesity; sucralose; sweetener; gut hormone; appetite

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