Original Article

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010) 64, 752–759; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.73; published online 19 May 2010

Differential impact of milk fatty acid profiles on cardiovascular risk biomarkers in healthy men and women

C Malpuech-Brugère1,2,3, J Mouriot1,2,3,4, C Boue-Vaysse5, N Combe5, J-L Peyraud6, P LeRuyet7, G Chesneau4, B Morio1,2,3 and J-M Chardigny1,2,3

  1. 1INRA, UMR 1019 Nutrition Humaine, Saint Genès Champanelle, France
  2. 2Clermont Université, UFR Médecine, UMR 1019 Nutrition Humaine, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  3. 3CRNH Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  4. 4S.A.S Valorex, La messayais, Combourtillé, France
  5. 5ITERG, Département de Nutrition, Bordeaux, France
  6. 6INRA, UMR 1080 Production du lait, Saint Gilles, France
  7. 7Lactalis, Recherche et Développement, Laval, France

Correspondence: Dr J-M Chardigny, INRA, UMR 1019 Nutrition Humaine, F-63122, Saint Genès Champanelle, France. E-mail: jean-michel.chardigny@clermont.inra.fr

Received 16 June 2009; Revised 10 December 2009; Accepted 11 January 2010; Published online 19 May 2010.

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Abstract

Background/Objectives:

 

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of three specific ruminant (R) milk fats resulting from modification of the cow's diet on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy volunteers. R-milk fats were characterized by increased content in total trans fatty acids (R-TFAs) and parallel decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFAs).

Subjects/Methods:

 

A total of 111 healthy, normolipemic men and women have been recruited for a monocentric, randomized, double-blind and parallel intervention, 4-week controlled study. Volunteers consumed three experimental products (butter, dessert cream and cookies) made with one of the three specific milk fats (55g fat per day). During the first week (run-in period), the subjects consumed on a daily basis dairy products containing 72% SFA/2.85% R-TFA (called ‘L0’). For the next 3 weeks of the study (intervention period), the first group continued to consume L0 products. The second group received dairy products containing 63.3% SFA/4.06% R-TFA (called ‘L4’), and the third group received dairy products containing 56.6% SFA/12.16% R-TFA (called ‘L9’).

Results:

 

Plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol were not significantly altered by either diet (P=0.38). Compared to L0 diet, L4 diet contributed to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (−0.14±0.38mmol/l, P=0.04), total cholesterol (−0.13±0.50mmol/l, P=0.04), LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (−0.14±0.36, P=0.03) and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (−0.18±0.44, P=0.02).

Conclusions:

 

Different milk fat profiles can change cardiovascular plasma parameters in human healthy volunteers. A limited increase of the R-TFA/SFA ratio in dairy products is associated with an improvement in some cardiovascular risk factors. However, a further increase in R-TFA/SFA ratio has no additional benefit.

Keywords:

human nutrition; lipids; trans fatty acids; milk fat; cardiovascular risk factors; cholesterol

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