European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

TABLE 3

FROM:

Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates

M Elia and J H Cummings

BACK TO ARTICLE

Table 3. Energy values of macronutrients and specific carbohydrates in foods (kJ/g)

  cIE DE ME NME
Macronutrients
 Fat39.337.437.436.6
 Protein23.621.716.813.4
 Available carbohydratesb 15.715.715.715.7
 'Fibre'/NSP17.07.77.76.0
 Alcohol29.629.629.025.8
     
Specific carbohydrates
 Available carbohydrates
  Glucose monohydrate14.114.114.114.1
  Glucose15.715.715.715.7
  Fructose15.715.715.715.2
  Lactose16.516.516.516.3
  Sucrose16.516.516.516.3
  Starch17.517.517.517.5
     
 Fibre
  Fermentable 'fibre'17.011.011.08.0
  Non-fermentable 'fibre'17.00.00.00.0
 Resistant starch17.511.411.48.8
     
 Non-digestible oligosaccharides
 General, conventional foods 17.011.111.18.4
Isolated/synthetic     
  Fructooligosaccharides17.011.111.18.4
  Synthetic polydextrose (5% glucose)16.96.66.65.2
  Inulin (pure)17.511.411.48.8
     
 Polyols
  Erythritol17.216.61.10.9
  Glycerol18.018.018.016.6
  Isomalt17.011.611.28.9
  Lactitol17.011.110.78.2
  Maltitol17.013.413.011.5
  Mannitol16.712.38.16.3
  Polyglycitol17.113.513.211.6
  Sorbitol16.712.011.79.7
  Xylitol17.014.013.712.4

 Abbreviations: cIE, combustible intake of energy; DE, digestible energy; ME, metabolizable energy; NME, net metabolizable energy; NSP, non-starch polysaccharides.

a Based on Livesey (2003a). The values for macronutrients have also been reported in Livesey (2001), with some trivial differences in the values for protein and alcohol. For available carbohydrates, see also Livesey and Elia (1988) and Elia and Livesey (1992). For fibre see text.

b Available carbohydrate (as monosaccharide equivalents) measured by direct analysis of sugars. When carbohydrate is measured 'by difference', the values increase by 1 kJ/g.

BACK TO ARTICLE