Cell Death and Differentiation

TABLE 1

FROM:

Autosis and autophagic cell death: the dark side of autophagy

Y Liu and B Levine

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Table 1. Comparison of the morphological features of autosis, ‘classical’ type II autophagic cell death, apoptosis, and necrosis

Cell deathAutosis‘Classical’ Type II Autophagic cell deathApoptosisNecrosis
Plasma membraneFocal plasma membrane rupturePlasma membrane rupture; Blebbing sometimes observedBlebbing of the plasma membrane with preserved integrityPlasma membrane rupture
NucleusNuclear membrane convolution and shrinkage; focal concavity of the nuclear surface; focal ballooning of perinuclear spaceMinor changesNuclear compaction and fragmentationDilatation of the nuclear membrane
ChromatinMild-moderate chromatin condensationMinor changesMarked chromatin condensationMild-moderate chromatin condensation
Autophagic structuresNumerous autophagosomes and autolysosomes (early-mid stages) with disappearance in final stagesNumerous autophagosomes and autolysosomesVariesVaries
Other cytoplasmic organellesElectron-dense mitochondria with abnormal internal structure (early); swollen mitochondria (late); dilated and fragmented ER (early) and ER disappearance (late)Enlargement of Golgi, mitochondria, and ER sometimes observed; depletion of cytoplasmic organelles sometimes observedMinor changesSwelling
Other unique featuresEnhanced cell-substrate adhesion; membrane-bound densities in perinuclear space Rounding up of cells and detachment from substrate; formation of apoptotic bodiesCell swelling
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