Figure 3: Treatment with probiotic L. reuteri ameliorates the escape behavior induced by chronic stress.

From: Microbiota alteration is associated with the development of stress-induced despair behavior

Figure 3: Treatment with probiotic L. reuteri ameliorates the escape behavior induced by chronic stress.
Figure 3

(a) Experimental design of L. reuteri supplementation regimen. (b) qRT-PCR quantification of Lactobacillus levels in fecal samples of L. reuteri or broth-control treated mice, relative to 16S rRNA (n = 5; representative of 2 independent experiments; two-tailed t-test, *p < 0.05; mean ± s.e.m.). (c) Forced swim test quantification of escape behavior of naïve and stressed mice treated with either L. reuteri or bacteria-free broth (n = 9 per group; representative of 2 independent experiments; 2-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post-hoc, **p < 0.01; mean ± s.e.m.). (d) Nestlet shredding test quantification of escape behavior of naïve and stressed mice treated with either L. reuteri or bacteria-free broth (n = 9 per group; representative of 2 independent experiments; 2-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post-hoc, **p < 0.01; mean ± s.e.m.). (e) Principal component analyses of serum metabolite composition after untargeted metabolomics assay (n = 5 mice per group) showing two (i) or three (ii) group comparisons; shaded areas represent 95% CI. (f) Normalized MS peaks of tryptophan - kynurenine pathway metabolites in the sera of naïve, stressed and L. reuteri treated stressed mice (n = 3–5 per group; 2-way ANOVA, ***p < 0.001; mean ± s.e.m.).