Figure 1 : Climate settings of the Kerguelen Islands and mass balance of the Cook Ice Cap (CIC) between 2000 and 2009.

From: Atmospheric drying as the main driver of dramatic glacier wastage in the southern Indian Ocean

Figure 1

(a) Map of the Kerguelen (black dot) and sub-Antarctic areas, with the mean positions of the sub-Antarctic (light green) and polar (dark green) oceanic fronts between 1993 and 2005 (ref. 26). The SAM 850 hPa geopotential height anomaly pattern is also shown as blue to red shading70. Map generated with ARCGIS 10.2 ArcInfo single use ( (b) Rate of change in surface elevation (in meters per year) on the CIC. The extents of CIC and Ampère Glacier in 2009 are represented by the black and red lines respectively. Changes in elevation are measured with an accuracy of ±1 m (at the 1-sigma confidence level, see Methods). The locations of Ampère glacier moraines from 1930–1962 and from the 1860 as given in ref. 14 are also presented. Map generated with Quantum GIS 1.7.4-Wroclaw ( (c) Ice cap hypsometry in 2000 and changes in its elevation between 2000 and 2009 (with standard deviations for each 50-m elevation interval) as a function of elevation. (d) Latitude vs. changes in specific volume for different ice caps in the sub-Antarctic and sub-Arctic regions. The numbers associated with each ice cap correspond to the bibliographic references. Our results for CIC and Ampère Glacier are also plotted for the sake of comparison.