Table 2: Numbers and proportions of Neandertal, horse, reindeer and carnivore remains bearing anthropogenic modifications and toothmarks in the Goyet assemblage.

From: Neandertal cannibalism and Neandertal bones used as tools in Northern Europe

 Nean dertalHorseReindeerCarnivore
NISP Observed9644228789
NISP Cutmarks31 (32%)85 (19%)126 (44%)3 (3%)
NISP Percussion Notches20 (21%)107 (24%)151 (53%)0
NISP Percussion Pits10 (10%)6 (1%)1 (0.3%)0
NISP Retoucher Traces5 (5%)22 (5%)58 (20%)0
NISP Toothmarks1 (1%)27 (6%)4 (1%)17 (19%)
  1. Carnivores include bear (Ursus spelaeus or Ursus arctos), fox (Vulpes vulpes or Vulpes lagopus), a large canid (Canis sp.), hyaena (Crocuta crocuta spelaea), and badger (Meles meles). The observed faunal specimens were identified among a sample of Dupont’s collection from FBL 2 and 3 (Supplementary Table S5). Note that the high percentage of retouchers made on reindeer bones is most likely related to the under-representation of fragments less than 55 mm long in our sample.