Figure 5: Comparisons of the inner ears of Fukuivenator and other selected animals.

From: A bizarre theropod from the Early Cretaceous of Japan highlighting mosaic evolution among coelurosaurians

Figure 5: Comparisons of the inner ears of Fukuivenator and other selected animals.
Figure 5

Inner ears of (a) Fukuivenator paradoxus, (b) Allosaurus fragilis, (c) Tyrannosaurus rex, (d) Gorgosaurus libratus, (e) Struthiomimus altus, (f) Falcarius utahensis, (g) Deinonychus antirrhopus, (h) Archaeopteryx lithographica, (i) Gambelia wislizenii, and (j) Aythya fuligula. Note that the caudal semicircular canal runs behind the lateral semicircular canal in (a) (red arrow). Plots: comparative proportions of the inner ears of Fukuivenator (red squares) against those of selected modern birds (blue circles), Archaeopteryx (purple circle), non-avian archosaurs (green triangles) and non-archosaur reptiles (brown diamonds), modified from Domínguez et al. 2004 (ref. 69). Scale bar = 20 mm for (a) and (e), 10 mm for (b–d) and (f,g), and 30 mm for (h–j). Abbreviations: % caudal canal height, height from the base of the caudal canal to the plane of the lateral canal/height of the caudal canal; c, cochlear duct; crc, crus communis; csc, caudal semicircular canal; lsc, lateral semicircular canal; rsc, rostral semicircular canal. References: (a) this paper; (b–e,g,h) Witmer & Ridgely, 2009 (ref. 37); (f) Lautenschlager et al., 2012 (ref. 70); (i,j) Walsh et al., 2009 (ref. 68).