Figure 1 : Threats to reproducible science.

From: A manifesto for reproducible science

Figure 1

An idealized version of the hypothetico-deductive model of the scientific method is shown. Various potential threats to this model exist (indicated in red), including lack of replication5, hypothesizing after the results are known (HARKing)7, poor study design, low statistical power2, analytical flexibility51, P-hacking4, publication bias3 and lack of data sharing6. Together these will serve to undermine the robustness of published research, and may also impact on the ability of science to self-correct.