Abstract

Electrical currents in atmospheric lightning strokes generate impulsive radio waves in a broad range of frequencies, called atmospherics. These waves can be modified by their passage through the plasma environment of a planet into the form of dispersed whistlers1. In the Io plasma torus around Jupiter, Voyager 1 detected whistlers as several-seconds-long slowly falling tones at audible frequencies2. These measurements were the first evidence of lightning at Jupiter. Subsequently, Jovian lightning was observed by optical cameras on board several spacecraft in the form of localized flashes of light3,4,5,6,7. Here, we show measurements by the Waves instrument8 on board the Juno spacecraft9,10,11 that indicate observations of Jovian rapid whistlers: a form of dispersed atmospherics at extremely short timescales of several milliseconds to several tens of milliseconds. On the basis of these measurements, we report over 1,600 lightning detections, the largest set obtained to date. The data were acquired during close approaches to Jupiter between August 2016 and September 2017, at radial distances below 5 Jovian radii. We detected up to four lightning strokes per second, similar to rates in thunderstorms on Earth12 and six times the peak rates from the Voyager 1 observations13.

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge all members of the Juno mission team, especially the engineers and staff of the Juno Waves instrument. The research at the University of Iowa was supported by NASA through contract 699041X with the Southwest Research Institute. The work of I.K. and O.S. was supported by the MSM100421701 and LTAUSA17070 grants and the Praemium Academiae award.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Space Physics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia

    • Ivana Kolmašová
    •  & Ondřej Santolík
  2. Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague, Czechia

    • Ivana Kolmašová
    •  & Ondřej Santolík
  3. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA

    • Masafumi Imai
    • , William S. Kurth
    • , George B. Hospodarsky
    •  & Donald A. Gurnett
  4. NASA/Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA

    • John E. P. Connerney
  5. Space Science Department, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA

    • Scott J. Bolton

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Contributions

I.K. and M.I. independently performed extensive searches for Jovian rapid whistlers in the Waves burst dataset and combined the results in common list of events. M.I. and O.S. prepared the occurrence maps and calculated occurrence rates from this list. W.S.K., G.B.H. and D.A.G provided consultations on data analysis. W.S.K. is responsible for the Juno Waves instrument. J.E.P.C. provided the planetary magnetic field measurements. S.J.B. is principal investigator of the Juno spacecraft. The manuscript was written by O.S. and I.K. with input from all authors.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ivana Kolmašová.

Supplementary information

  1. Supplementary Information

    Supplementary Figures 1–10, Supplementary Tables 1–2, Supplementary Audio Guide

  2. Supplementary Audio 1

    Sound of whistler from Fig. 1a

  3. Supplementary Audio 2

    Sound of whistler from Fig. 1b

  4. Supplementary Data 1

    List of historical optical lightning detections on Jupiter

  5. Supplementary Data 2

    List of Jovian rapid whistlers observed by Juno

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-018-0442-z

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