Aigner TG, Mishkin M (1986). The effects of physostigmine and scopolamine on recognition memory in monkeys. Behav Neural Biol 45: 81–87.
Amitai N, Markou A (2009). Chronic nicotine improves cognitive performance in a test of attention but does not attenuate cognitive disruption induced by repeated phencyclidine administration. Psychopharmacology 202: 275–286.
Arnsten AF (2006). Stimulants: therapeutic actions in ADHD. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 2376–2383.
Arnsten AF (2007). Catecholamine and second messenger influences on prefrontal cortical networks of ‘representational knowledge’: a rational bridge between genetics and the symptoms of mental illness. Cereb Cortex 17(Suppl 1): i6–i15.
Arnsten AF, Cai JX, Goldman-Rakic PS (1988). The alpha-2 adrenergic agonist guanfacine improves memory in aged monkeys without sedative or hypotensive side effects: evidence for alpha-2 receptor subtypes. J Neurosci 8: 4287–4298.
Arnsten AF, Cai JX, Murphy BL, Goldman-Rakic PS (1994). Dopamine D1 receptor mechanisms in the cognitive performance of young adult and aged monkeys. Psychopharmacology 116: 143–151. This paper provided some of the first evidence that the effects of D1 agonists on working memory likely depend on baseline catecholamine levels.
Arnsten AF, Cai JX, Steere JC, Goldman-Rakic PS (1995). Dopamine D2 receptor mechanisms contribute to age-related cognitive decline: the effects of quinpirole on memory and motor performance in monkeys. J Neurosci 15: 3429–3439.
Arnsten AF, Dudley AG (2005). Methylphenidate improves prefrontal cortical cognitive function through alpha2 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor actions: relevance to therapeutic effects in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behav Brain Funct 1: 2.
Arnsten AF, Goldman-Rakic PS (1985a). Catecholamines and cognitive decline in aged nonhuman primates. Ann N Y Acad Sci 444: 218–234.
Arnsten AF, Goldman-Rakic PS (1985b). Alpha 2-adrenergic mechanisms in prefrontal cortex associated with cognitive decline in aged nonhuman primates. Science 230: 1273–1276.
Arnsten AF, Goldman-Rakic PS (1990). Analysis of alpha-2 adrenergic agonist effects on the delayed nonmatch-to-sample performance of aged rhesus monkeys. Neurobiol Aging 11: 583–590.
Arnsten AF, Li BM (2005). Neurobiology of executive functions: catecholamine influences on prefrontal cortical functions. Biol Psychiatry 57: 1377–1384.
Aultman JM, Moghaddam B (2001). Distinct contributions of glutamate and dopamine receptors to temporal aspects of rodent working memory using a clinically relevant task. Psychopharmacology 153: 353–364.
Baddeley A (2010). Working memory. Curr Biol 20: R136–R140.
Baddeley A, Hitch G (1974). Working memory. In: Bower GA (ed). The Psychology of Learning and Motivation. Academic Press: San Diego. pp 48–79.
Balducci C, Nurra M, Pietropoli A, Samanin R, Carli M (2003). Reversal of visual attention dysfunction after AMPA lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) by the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and by a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635. Psychopharmacology 167: 28–36.
Ballard TM, Woolley ML, Prinssen E, Huwyler J, Porter R, Spooren W (2005). The effect of the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP in rodent tests of anxiety and cognition: a comparison. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179: 218–229.
Barch DM (2005). The cognitive neuroscience of schizophrenia. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 1: 321–353.
Bari A, Eagle DM, Mar AC, Robinson ES, Robbins TW (2009). Dissociable effects of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin uptake blockade on stop task performance in rats. Psychopharmacology 205: 273–283. A clear demonstration of the dissociable contribution of monoamine transmitters on a test of response inhibition.
Barker GR, Bashir ZI, Brown MW, Warburton EC (2006). A temporally distinct role for group I and group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in object recognition memory. Learn Mem 13: 178–186.
Barnes CA, Meltzer J, Houston F, Orr G, McGann K, Wenk GL (2000). Chronic treatment of old rats with donepezil or galantamine: effects on memory, hippocampal plasticity and nicotinic receptors. Neuroscience 99: 17–23.
Barnes JM, Costall B, Coughlan J, Domeney AM, Gerrard PA, Kelly ME et al (1990). The effects of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, on cognition in rodents and primates. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 35: 955–962.
Baviera M, Invernizzi RW, Carli M (2008). Haloperidol and clozapine have dissociable effects in a model of attentional performance deficits induced by blockade of NMDA receptors in the mPFC. Psychopharmacology 196: 269–280.
Baxter MG, Murray EA (2002). The amygdala and reward. Nat Rev Neurosci 3: 563–573.
Berridge CW, Devilbiss DM, Andrzejewski ME, Arnsten AF, Kelley AE, Schmeichel B et al (2006). Methylphenidate preferentially increases catecholamine neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex at low doses that enhance cognitive function. Biol Psychiatry 60: 1111–1120. This paper provides direct evidence that the cognitive-enhancing effects of stimulant drugs depends on their ability to modulate noradrenaline and dopamine transmission in frontal cortical regions.
Bertaina-Anglade V, la Rochelle CD, Munoz C, Morain P, Bernard K (2007). Comparison of single vs multiple administrations of the AMPA receptors modulator S 18986 in the object recognition task in rats. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 21: 349–354.
Bevins RA, Besheer J (2006). Object recognition in rats and mice: a one-trial non-matching-to-sample learning task to study ‘recognition memory’. Nat Protoc 1: 1306–1311.
Birrell JM, Brown VJ (2000). Medial frontal cortex mediates perceptual attentional set shifting in the rat. J Neurosci 20: 4320–4324.
Bissière S, Humeau Y, Lüthi A. (2003). Dopamine gates LTP induction in lateral amygdala by suppressing feedforward inhibition. Nat Neurosci 6: 587–592.
Bitner RS, Bunnelle WH, Anderson DJ, Briggs CA, Buccafusco J, Curzon P et al (2007). Broad-spectrum efficacy across cognitive domains by alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonism correlates with activation of ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation pathways. J Neurosci 27: 10578–10587.
Bizarro L, Patel S, Murtagh C, Stolerman IP (2004). Differential effects of psychomotor stimulants on attentional performance in rats: nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate. Behav Pharmacol 15: 195–206.
Bizarro L, Stolerman IP (2003). Attentional effects of nicotine and amphetamine in rats at different levels of motivation. Psychopharmacology 170: 271–277.
Block AE, Dhanji H, Thompson-Tardif SF, Floresco SB (2007). Thalamic-prefrontal cortical-ventral striatal circuitry mediates dissociable components of strategy set shifting. Cereb Cortex 17: 1625–1636.
Blondeau C, Dellu-Hagedorn F (2007). Dimensional analysis of ADHD subtypes in rats. Biol Psychiatry 61: 1340–1350.
Boess FG, De Vry J, Erb C, Flessner T, Hendrix M, Luithle J et al (2007). The novel alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-7-[2-(methoxy)phenyl]-1-benzofuran-2-carboxamide improves working and recognition memory in rodents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 321: 716–725.
Bolla KI, Cadet JL, London ED (1998). The neuropsychiatry of chronic cocaine abuse. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 10: 280–289.
Bontempi B, Whelan KT, Risbrough VB, Lloyd GK, Menzaghi F (2003). Cognitive enhancing properties and tolerability of cholinergic agents in mice: a comparative study of nicotine, donepezil, and SIB-1553A, a subtype-selective ligand for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology 28: 1235–1246.
Bontempi B, Whelan KT, Risbrough VB, Rao TS, Buccafusco JJ, Lloyd GK et al (2001). SIB-1553A, (+/−)-4-[[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio]phenol hydrochloride, a subtype-selective ligand for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with putative cognitive-enhancing properties: effects on working and reference memory performances in aged rodents and nonhuman primates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 299: 297–306.
Boulay D, Pichat P, Dargazanli G, Estenne-Bouhtou G, Terranova JP, Rogacki N et al (2008). Characterization of SSR103800, a selective inhibitor of the glycine transporter-1 in models predictive of therapeutic activity in schizophrenia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 91: 47–58.
Boulougouris V, Castañé A, Robbins TW (2009). Dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole impairs spatial reversal learning in rats: investigation of D3 receptor involvement in persistent behavior. Psychopharmacology 202: 611–620.
Boulougouris V, Glennon JC, Robbins TW (2008). Dissociable effects of selective 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor antagonists on serial spatial reversal learning in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 33: 2007–2019.
Boulougouris V, Robbins TW (2010). Enhancement of spatial reversal learning by 5-HT2C receptor antagonism is neuroanatomically specific. J Neurosci 30: 930–938.
Bouton ME, Bolles RC (1979). Role of conditioned contextual stimuli in reinstatement of extinguished fear. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 5: 368–378.
Bouton ME, Westbrook RF, Corcoran KA, Maren S (2006). Contextual and temporal modulation of extinction: behavioral and biological mechanisms. Biol Psychiatry 60: 352–360.
Bradley SR, Lameh J, Ohrmund L, Son T, Bajpai A, Nguyen D et al (2010). AC-260584, an orally bioavailable M(1) muscarinic receptor allosteric agonist, improves cognitive performance in an animal model. Neuropharmacology 58: 365–373.
Brigman JL, Mathur P, Harvey-White J, Izquierdo A, Saksida LM, Bussey TJ et al (2010). Pharmacological or genetic inactivation of the serotonin transporter improves reversal learning in mice. Cereb Cortex 20: 1955–1963 (print copy in press (originally published online 18 February 2010 at doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp266)).
Broberg BV, Glenthøj BY, Dias R, Larsen DB, Olsen CK (2009). Reversal of cognitive deficits by an ampakine (CX516) and sertindole in two animal models of schizophrenia—sub-chronic and early postnatal PCP treatment in attentional set-shifting. Psychopharmacology 206: 631–640.
Brown RW, Bardo MT, Mace DD, Phillips SB, Kraemer PJ (2000). D-amphetamine facilitation of morris water task performance is blocked by eticlopride and correlated with increased dopamine synthesis in the prefrontal cortex. Behav Brain Res 114: 135–143.
Brown MW, Bashir ZI (2002). Evidence concerning how neurons of the perirhinal cortex may effect familiarity discrimination. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B 357: 1083–1095.
Brozoski TJ, Brown RM, Rosvold HE, Goldman PS (1979). Cognitive deficit caused by regional depletion of dopamine in prefrontal cortex of rhesus monkey. Science 205: 929–932. The first demonstration of a direct relationship between catecholamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex and working memory.
Buccafusco JJ, Terry Jr AV, Decker MW, Gopalakrishnan M (2007). Profile of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists ABT-594 and A-582941, with differential subtype selectivity, on delayed matching accuracy by young monkeys. Biochem Pharmacol 74: 1202–1211.
Buccafusco JJ, Webster SJ, Terry Jr AV, Kille N, Blessing D (2009). Protracted cognitive effects produced by clonidine in Macaca nemestrina performing a delayed matching task. Psychopharmacology 202: 477–485.
Buchanan TW (2007). Retrieval of emotional memories. Psychol Bull 133: 761–779.
Bunge SA (2004). How we use rules to select actions: a review of evidence from cognitive neuroscience. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 4: 564–579.
Burgos-Robles A, Vidal-Gonzalez I, Santini E, Quirk GJ (2007). Consolidation of fear extinction requires NMDA receptor-dependent bursting in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Neuron 53: 871–880.
Burmeister JJ, Lungren EM, Neisewander JL (2003). Effects of fluoxetine and d-fenfluramine on cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology 168: 146–154.
Burnham KE, Baxter MG, Bainton JR, Southam E, Dawson LA, Bannerman DM et al (2010). Activation of 5-HT(6) receptors facilitates attentional set shifting. Psychopharmacology 208: 13–21.
Bymaster FP, Katner JS, Nelson DL, Hemrick-Luecke SK, Threlkeld PG, Heiligenstein JH et al (2002). Atomoxetine increases extracellular levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in prefrontal cortex of rat: a potential mechanism for efficacy in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 27: 699–711.
Cahill L, Prins B, Weber M, McGaugh JL (1994). Beta-adrenergic activation and memory for emotional events. Nature 371: 702–704.
Cain CK, Blouin AM, Barad M (2004). Adrenergic transmission facilitates extinction of conditional fear in mice. Learn Mem 11: 179–187.
Calabresi P, Centonze D, Gubellini P, Bernardi G (1999). Activation of M1-like muscarinic receptors is required for the induction of corticostriatal LTP. Neuropharmacology 38: 323–326.
Carli M, Baviera M, Invernizzi RW, Balducci C (2006). Dissociable contribution of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex to different aspects of executive control such as impulsivity and compulsive perseveration in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 757–767. This paper delineates the differential contribution of 5-HT receptor subtypes to inhibitory control over pre-potent responding in CSRTT.
Carli M, Robbins TW, Evenden JL, Everitt BJ (1983). Effects of lesions to ascending noradrenergic neurones on performance of a 5-choice serial reaction task in rats; implications for theories of dorsal noradrenergic bundle function based on selective attention and arousal. Behav Brain Res 9: 361–380.
Carli M, Samanin R (2000). The 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT reduces rats’ accuracy of attentional performance and enhances impulsive responding in a five-choice serial reaction time task: role of presynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. Psychopharmacology 149: 259–268.
Castañé A, Theobald DE, Robbins TW (2010). Selective lesions of the dorsomedial striatum impair serial spatial reversal learning in rats. Behav Brain Res 210: 74–83.
Centonze D, Picconi B, Gubellini P, Bernardi G, Calabresi P (2001). Dopaminergic control of synaptic plasticity in the dorsal striatum. Eur J Neurosci 13: 1071–1077.
Chamberlain SR, Del Campo N, Dowson J, Muller U, Clark L, Robbins TW et al (2007a). Atomoxetine improved response inhibition in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 62: 977–984.
Chamberlain SR, Muller U, Cleary S, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (2007b). Atomoxetine increases salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers. J Psychopharmacol 21: 545–549.
Cho K, Kemp N, Noel J, Aggleton JP, Brown MW, Bashir ZI (2000). A new form of long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex. Nat Neurosci 3: 150–156.
Chudasama Y, Passetti F, Rhodes SE, Lopian D, Desai A, Robbins TW (2003). Dissociable aspects of performance on the 5-choice serial reaction time task following lesions of the dorsal anterior cingulate, infralimbic and orbitofrontal cortex in the rat: differential effects on selectivity, impulsivity and compulsivity. Behav Brain Res 146: 105–119.
Chudasama Y, Robbins TW (2004). Dopaminergic modulation of visual attention and working memory in the rodent prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology 29: 1628–1636.
Chuhan YS, Taukulis HK (2006). Impairment of single-trial memory formation by oral methylphenidate in the rat. Neurobiol Learn Mem 85: 125–131.
Churchwell JC, Morris AM, Musso ND, Kesner RP (2010). Prefrontal and hippocampal contributions to encoding and retrieval of spatial memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem 93: 415–421.
Clark L, Chamberlain SR, Sahakian BJ (2009). Neurocognitive mechanisms in depression: implications for treatment. Annu Rev Neurosci 32: 57–74.
Clarke HF, Dalley JW, Crofts HS, Robbins TW, Roberts AC (2004). Cognitive inflexibility after prefrontal serotonin depletion. Science 304: 878–880.
Clarke HF, Walker SC, Crofts HS, Dalley JW, Robbins TW, Roberts AC (2005). Prefrontal serotonin depletion affects reversal learning but not attentional set shifting. J Neurosci 25: 532–538.
Clarke HF, Walker SC, Dalley JW, Robbins TW, Roberts AC (2007). Cognitive inflexibility after prefrontal serotonin depletion is behaviorally and neurochemically specific. Cereb Cortex 17: 18–27. This article provides direct evidence linking orbitofrontal serotonin, but not dopamine, mechanisms to perseverative responding in reversal learning tests.
Clayton NS, Russell J (2009). Looking for episodic memory in animals and young children: prospects for a new minimalism. Neuropsychologia 47: 2330–2340.
Cools R, Altamirano L, D’Esposito M (2006). Reversal learning in Parkinson's disease depends on medication status and outcome valence. Neuropsychologia 44: 1663–1673.
Cools R, Lewis SJ, Clark L, Barker RA, Robbins TW. (2007). -DOPA disrupts activity in the nucleus accumbens during reversal learning in Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychopharmacology 32: 180–189.
Corcoran KA, Quirk GJ. (2007). Activity in prelimbic cortex is necessary for the expression of learned, but not innate, fears. J Neurosci 27: 840–844.
Crofts HS, Dalley JW, Collins P, Van Denderen JC, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW et al (2001). Differential effects of 6-OHDA lesions of the frontal cortex and caudate nucleus on the ability to acquire an attentional set. Cereb Cortex 11: 1015–1026. This paper shows that improvements in cognitive flexibility associated with dopamine depletion depend, in part, on deficits in attentional set formation caused by the insult.
Curtis CE, D’Esposito M (2004). The effects of prefrontal lesions on working memory performance and theory. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 4: 528–539.
Cutuli D, Foti F, Mandolesi L, De Bartolo P, Gelfo F, Federico F et al (2009). Cognitive performances of cholinergically depleted rats following chronic donepezil administration. J Alzheimers Dis 17: 161–176.
Dalton GL, Wang YT, Floresco SB, Phillips AG (2008). Disruption of AMPA receptor endocytosis impairs the extinction, but not acquisition of learned fear. Neuropsychopharmacology 33: 2416–2426.
Damgaard T, Larsen DB, Hansen SL, Grayson B, Neill JC, Plath N (2010). Positive modulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors reverses sub-chronic PCP-induced deficits in the novel object recognition task in rats. Behav Brain Res 207: 144–150.
Dawson GR, Iversen SD (1993). The effects of novel cholinesterase inhibitors and selective muscarinic receptor agonists in tests of reference and working memory. Behav Brain Res 57: 143–153.
Decamp E, Schneider JS (2006). Effects of nicotinic therapies on attention and executive functions in chronic low-dose MPTP-treated monkeys. Eur J Neurosci 24: 2098–2104.
Dias R, Robbins TW, Roberts AC (1996). Dissociation in prefrontal cortex of affective and attentional shifts. Nature 380: 69–72.
Dillon GM, Shelton D, McKinney AP, Caniga M, Marcus JN, Ferguson MT et al (2009). Prefrontal cortex lesions and scopolamine impair attention performance of C57BL/6 mice in a novel 2-choice visual discrimination task. Behav Brain Res 204: 67–76.
Doyle AE. (2006). Executive functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 67(Suppl 8): 21–26.
Eagle DM, Bari A, Robbins TW (2008a). The neuropsychopharmacology of action inhibition: cross-species translation of the stop-signal and go/no-go tasks. Psychopharmacology 199: 439–456.
Eagle DM, Baunez C (2010). Is there an inhibitory-response-control system in the rat? Evidence from anatomical and pharmacological studies of behavioral inhibition. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 34: 50–72.
Eagle DM, Baunez C, Hutcheson DM, Lehmann O, Shah AP, Robbins TW (2008b). Stop-signal reaction-time task performance: role of prefrontal cortex and subthalamic nucleus. Cereb Cortex 18: 178–188.
Eagle DM, Tufft MR, Goodchild HL, Robbins TW (2007). Differential effects of modafinil and methylphenidate on stop-signal reaction time task performance in the rat, and interactions with the dopamine receptor antagonist cis-flupenthixol. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 192: 193–206.
Enomoto T, Floresco SB (2009). Disruptions in spatial working memory, but not short-term memory, induced by repeated ketamine exposure. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33: 668–675.
Fletcher PJ, Tampakeras M, Sinyard J, Higgins GA (2007a). Opposing effects of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonists in the rat and mouse on premature responding in the five-choice serial reaction time test. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 195: 223–234.
Fletcher PJ, Tenn CC, Rizos Z, Lovic V, Kapur S (2005). Sensitization to amphetamine, but not PCP, impairs attentional set shifting: reversal by a D1 receptor agonist injected into the medial prefrontal cortex. Psychopharmacology 183: 190–200.
Fletcher PJ, Tenn CC, Sinyard J, Rizos Z, Kapur S (2007b). A sensitizing regimen of amphetamine impairs visual attention in the 5-choice serial reaction time test: reversal by a D1 receptor agonist injected into the medial prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology 32: 1122–1132.
Floresco SB, Block AE, Tse MT (2008). Inactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat impairs strategy set-shifting, but not reversal learning, using a novel, automated procedure. Behav Brain Res 2008: 190:85–190:96.
Floresco SB, Geyer MA, Gold LH, Grace AA (2005). Developing predictive animal models and establishing a preclinical trials network for assessing treatment effects on cognition in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 31: 888–894.
Floresco SB, Ghods-Sharifi S, Vexelman C, Magyar O (2006a). Dissociable roles for the nucleus accumbens core and shell in regulating set shifting. J Neurosci 26: 2449–2457.
Floresco SB, Magyar O, Ghods-Sharifi S, Vexelman C, Tse MT (2006b). Multiple dopamine receptor subtypes in the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat regulate set-shifting. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 297–309.
Floresco SB, Phillips AG (2001). Delay-dependent modulation of memory retrieval by infusion of a dopamine D1 agonist into the rat medial prefrontal cortex. Behav Neurosci 115: 934–939.
Floresco SB, Zhang Y, Enomoto T (2009). Neural circuits subserving behavioral flexibility and their relevance to schizophrenia. Behav Brain Res 204: 396–409.
Fone KC (2008). An update on the role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine6 receptor in cognitive function. Neuropharmacology 55: 1015–1022.
Franowicz JS, Arnsten AF (1998). The alpha-2a noradrenergic agonist, guanfacine, improves delayed response performance in young adult rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 136: 8–14. This article shows the cognitive enhancing effects of alpha-2 agonists, even in optimal young subjects.
Franowicz JS, Arnsten AF (1999). Treatment with the noradrenergic alpha-2 agonist clonidine, but not diazepam, improves spatial working memory in normal young rhesus monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology 21: 611–621.
Franowicz JS, Kessler LE, Borja CM, Kobilka BK, Limbird LE, Arnsten AF (2002). Mutation of the alpha2A-adrenoceptor impairs working memory performance and annuls cognitive enhancement by guanfacine. J Neurosci 22: 8771–8777.
Fuster JM (2008). The Prefrontal Cortex, 4th edn. Academic Press: San Diego.
Fuster JM, Alexander GE (1971). Neuron activity related to short-term memory. Science 173: 652–654.
Ghods-Sharifi S, Haluk DM, Floresco SB (2008). Differential effects of inactivation of the orbitofrontal cortex on strategy set-shifting and reversal learning. Neurobiol Learn Mem 89: 567–573.
Giannoni P, Medhurst AD, Passani MB, Giovannini MG, Ballini C, Corte LD et al (2010). Regional differential effects of the novel histamine H3 receptor antagonist 6-[(3-cyclobutyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepin-7-yl)oxy]-N-methyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide hydrochloride (GSK189254) on histamine release in the central nervous system of freely moving rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 332: 164–172.
Goetghebeur P, Dias R (2009). Comparison of haloperidol, risperidone, sertindole, and modafinil to reverse an attentional set-shifting impairment following subchronic PCP administration in the rat—a back translational study. Psychopharmacology 202: 287–293.
Goldman PS, Rosvold HE, Vest B, Galkin TW (1971). Analysis of the delayed-alternation deficit produced by dorsolateral prefrontal lesions in the rhesus monkey. J Comp Physiol Psychol 77: 212–220.
Goldman-Rakic PS (1987). Circuitry of the primate prefrontal cortex and the regulation of behavior by representational memory. In: Plum F (ed). Handbook of Physiology, the Nervous System, Higher Functions of the Brain. American Physiological Society: Bethesda, MDpp 373–417.
Granon S, Passetti F, Thomas KL, Dalley JW, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2000). Enhanced and impaired attentional performance after infusion of D1 dopaminergic receptor agents into rat prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 20: 1208–1215. A key paper revealing that the effects of D1 agonist administration on attention function depends on baseline performance characteristics.
Greco B, Invernizzi RW, Carli M (2005). Phencyclidine-induced impairment in attention and response control depends on the background genotype of mice: reversal by the mGLU(2/3) receptor agonist LY379268. Psychopharmacology 179: 68–76.
Greenwald BS, Davis KL (1983). Experimental pharmacology of Alzheimer disease. Adv Neurol 38: 87–102.
Grilly DM (2000). A verification of psychostimulant-induced improvement in sustained attention in rats: effects of d-amphetamine, nicotine, and pemoline. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 8: 14–21.
Grilly DM, Gowans GC, McCann DS, Grogan TW (1989). Effects of cocaine and d-amphetamine on sustained and selective attention in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 33: 733–739.
Grottick AJ, Fletcher PJ, Higgins GA (2000). Studies to investigate the role of 5-HT(2C) receptors on cocaine- and food-maintained behavior. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 295: 1183–1191.
Grottick AJ, Haman M, Wyler R, Higgins GA (2003). Reversal of a vigilance decrement in the aged rat by subtype-selective nicotinic ligands. Neuropsychopharmacology 28: 880–887.
Grottick AJ, Higgins GA (2000). Effect of subtype selective nicotinic compounds on attention as assessed by the five-choice serial reaction time task. Behav Brain Res 117: 197–208.
Grottick AJ, Higgins GA (2002). Assessing a vigilance decrement in aged rats: effects of pre-feeding, task manipulation, and psychostimulants. Psychopharmacology 164: 33–41.
Grottick AJ, Wyler R, Higgins GA (2001). A study of the nicotinic agonist SIB-1553A on locomotion and attention as measured by the five-choice serial reaction time task. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 70: 505–513.
Hahn B, Sharples CG, Wonnacott S, Shoaib M, Stolerman IP (2003). Attentional effects of nicotinic agonists in rats. Neuropharmacology 44: 1054–1067.
Hahn B, Shoaib M, Stolerman IP (2002a). Nicotine-induced enhancement of attention in the five-choice serial reaction time task: the influence of task demands. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 162: 129–137.
Hahn B, Shoaib M, Stolerman IP (2002b). Effects of dopamine receptor antagonists on nicotine-induced attentional enhancement. Behav Pharmacol 13: 621–632.
Hahn B, Stolerman IP (2002). Nicotine-induced attentional enhancement in rats: effects of chronic exposure to nicotine. Neuropsychopharmacology 27: 712–722.
Hahn B, Stolerman IP (2005). Modulation of nicotine-induced attentional enhancement in rats by adrenoceptor antagonists. Psychopharmacology 177: 438–447.
Hains AB, Arnsten AF (2008). Molecular mechanisms of stress-induced prefrontal cortical impairment: implications for mental illness. Learn Mem 15: 551–564.
Haluk DM, Floresco SB (2009). Ventral striatal dopamine modulation of different forms of behavioral flexibility. Neuropsychopharmacology 34: 2041–2052.
Hampson RE, Rogers G, Lynch G, Deadwyler SA (1998a). Facilitative effects of the ampakine CX516 on short-term memory in rats: correlations with hippocampal neuronal activity. J Neurosci 18: 2748–2763.
Hampson RE, Rogers G, Lynch G, Deadwyler SA (1998b). Facilitative effects of the ampakine CX516 on short-term memory in rats: enhancement of delayed-nonmatch-to-sample performance. J Neurosci 18: 2740–2747.
Hannesson DK, Vacca G, Howland JG, Phillips AG (2004). Medial prefrontal cortex is involved in spatial temporal order memory but not spatial recognition memory in tests relying on spontaneous exploration in rats. Behav Brain Res 153: 273–285.
Harrison AA, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (1997). Central 5-HT depletion enhances impulsive responding without affecting the accuracy of attentional performance: interactions with dopaminergic mechanisms. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 133: 329–342.
Hashimoto K, Ishima T, Fujita Y, Matsuo M, Kobashi T, Takahagi M et al (2008). Phencyclidine-induced cognitive deficits in mice are improved by subsequent subchronic administration of the novel selective alpha7 nicotinic receptor agonist SSR180711. Biol Psychiatry 63: 92–97.
Hatcher PD, Brown VJ, Tait DS, Bate S, Overend P, Hagan JJ et al (2005). 5-HT6 receptor antagonists improve performance in an attentional set shifting task in rats. Psychopharmacology 181: 253–259.
Hatfield T, McGaugh JL (1999). Norepinephrine infused into the basolateral amygdala posttraining enhances retention in a spatial water maze task. Neurobiol Learn Mem 71: 232–239.
Hauser TA, Kucinski A, Jordan KG, Gatto GJ, Wersinger SR, Hesse RA et al (2009). TC-5619: an alpha7 neuronal nicotinic receptor-selective agonist that demonstrates efficacy in animal models of the positive and negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction of schizophrenia. Biochem Pharmacol 78: 803–812.
Higgins GA, Enderlin M, Haman M, Fletcher PJ (2003). The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100,907 attenuates motor and ‘impulsive-type’ behaviours produced by NMDA receptor antagonism. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 170: 309–319.
Higgins GA, Grzelak ME, Pond AJ, Cohen-Williams ME, Hodgson RA, Varty GB (2007). The effect of caffeine to increase reaction time in the rat during a test of attention is mediated through antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors. Behav Brain Res 185: 32–42.
Hill MN, Froese LM, Morrish AC, Sun JC, Floresco SB (2006). Alterations in behavioral flexibility by cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists and antagonists. Psychopharmacology 187: 245–259.
Hitchcott PK, Harmer CJ, Phillips GD (1997). Enhanced acquisition of discriminative approach following intra-amygdala d-amphetamine. Psychopharmacology 132: 237–246.
Homayoun H, Moghaddam B (2006). Bursting of prefrontal cortex neurons in awake rats is regulated by metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors: rate-dependent influence and interaction with NMDA receptors. Cereb Cortex 16: 93–105.
Homayoun H, Stefani MR, Adams BW, Tamagan GD, Moghaddam B (2004). Functional interaction between NMDA and mGlu5 receptors: effects on working memory, instrumental learning, motor behaviors, and dopamine release. Neuropsychopharmacology 29: 1259–1269.
Hotte M, Naudon L, Jay TM (2005). Modulation of recognition and temporal order memory retrieval by dopamine D1 receptor in rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem 84: 85–92.
Howe WM, Ji J, Parikh V, Williams S, Mocaer E, Trocme-Thibierge C et al (2010). Enhancement of attentional performance by selective stimulation of alpha4beta2(*) nAChRs: underlying cholinergic mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology 35: 1391–1401.
Hoyle E, Genn RF, Fernandes C, Stolerman IP (2006). Impaired performance of alpha7 nicotinic receptor knockout mice in the five-choice serial reaction time task. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189: 211–223.
Idris N, Neill J, Grayson B, Bang-Andersen B, Witten LM, Brennum LT et al (2010). Sertindole improves sub-chronic PCP-induced reversal learning and episodic memory deficits in rodents: involvement of 5-HT(6) and 5-HT (2A) receptor mechanisms. Psychopharmacology 208: 23–36.
Jakala P, Sirvio J, Riekkinen PJ (1993). The effects of tacrine and zacopride on the performance of adult rats in the working memory task. Gen Pharmacol 24: 675–679.
Javitt DC, Zukin SR (1991). Recent advances in the phencyclidine model of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 148: 1301–1308.
Jentsch JD, Aarde SM, Seu E (2009). Effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on performance of a lateralized reaction time task in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 202: 497–504. Enhancements of attention produced by atomoxetine depend on relative contributions of top–down control executive control of performance.
Jentsch JD, Anzivino LA (2004). A low dose of the alpha2 agonist clonidine ameliorates the visual attention and spatial working memory deficits produced by phencyclidine administration to rats. Psychopharmacology 175: 76–83.
Jentsch JD, Redmond DE, Elsworth JD, Taylor JR, Youngren KD, Roth RH (1997). Enduring cognitive deficits and cortical dopamine dysfunction in monkeys after long-term administration of phencyclidine. Science 277: 953–955.
Jentsch JD, Roth RH (1999). The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: from NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 20: 201–225.
Jo YS, Park EH, Kim IH, Park SK, Kim H, Kim HT et al (2007). The medial prefrontal cortex is involved in spatial memory retrieval under partial-cue conditions. J Neurosci 27: 13567–13578.
Katner SN, Davis SA, Kirsten AJ, Taffe MA (2004). Effects of nicotine and mecamylamine on cognition in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 175: 225–240.
Kendall I, Slotten HA, Codony X, Burgueño J, Pauwels PJ, Vela JM et al (2010). E-6801, a 5-HT(6) receptor agonist, improves recognition memory by combined modulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the rat. Psychopharmacology (E-pub ahead of print 20 April).
Kim J, Glahn DC, Nuechterlein KH, Cannon TD (2004). Maintenance and manipulation of information in schizophrenia: further evidence for impairment in the central executive component of working memory. Schizophr Res 68: 173–187.
Kirkby DL, Jones DN, Barnes JC, Higgins GA (1996). Effects of anticholinesterase drugs tacrine and E2020, the 5-HT(3) antagonist ondansetron, and the H(3) antagonist thioperamide, in models of cognition and cholinergic function. Behav Pharmacol 7: 513–525.
Kombian SB, Malenka RC (1994). Simultaneous LTP of non-NMDA- and LTD of NMDA-receptor-mediated responses in the nucleus accumbens. 17: 242–246.
Koseki H, Matsumoto M, Togashi H, Miura Y, Fukushima K, Yoshioka M (2009). Alteration of synaptic transmission in the hippocampal-mPFC pathway during extinction trials of context-dependent fear memory in juvenile rat stress models. Synapse 63: 805–813.
Koskinen T, Sirvio J (2001). Studies on the involvement of the dopaminergic system in the 5-HT2 agonist (DOI)-induced premature responding in a five-choice serial reaction time task. Brain Res Bull 54: 65–75.
Lambe EK, Olausson P, Horst NK, Taylor JR, Aghajanian GK (2005). Hypocretin and nicotine excite the same thalamocortical synapses in prefrontal cortex: correlation with improved attention in rat. J Neurosci 25: 5225–5229.
Land C, Riccio DC (1999). d-Cycloserine: effects on long-term retention of a conditioned response and on memory for contextual attributes. Neurobiol Learn Mem 72: 158–168.
Lapiz MD, Bondi CO, Morilak DA (2007). Chronic treatment with desipramine improves cognitive performance of rats in an attentional set-shifting test. Neuropsychopharmacology 32: 1000–1010.
Lapiz MD, Morilak DA (2006). Noradrenergic modulation of cognitive function in rat medial prefrontal cortex as measured by attentional set shifting capability. Neuroscience 137: 1039–1049.
Lapiz-Bluhm MD, Soto-Piña AE, Hensler JG, Morilak DA (2009). Chronic intermittent cold stress and serotonin depletion induce deficits of reversal learning in an attentional set-shifting test in rats. Psychopharmacology 202: 329–341.
Lashley KS (1917). The effects of strychnine and caffeine upon rate of learning. Psychobiology 1: 141–170.
LeDoux JE (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain. Annu Rev Neurosci 23: 155–184.
Lee AC, Robbins TW, Pickard JD, Owen AM (2000). Asymmetric frontal activation during episodic memory: the effects of stimulus type on encoding and retrieval. Neuropsychologia 38: 677–692.
Lee B, Groman S, London ED, Jentsch JD (2007). Dopamine D2/D3 receptors play a specific role in the reversal of a learned visual discrimination in monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology 32: 2125–2134.
Lee JL, Milton AL, Everitt BJ (2006). Reconsolidation and extinction of conditioned fear: inhibition and potentiation. J Neurosci 26: 10051–10056.
Levin ED, McClernon FJ, Rezvani AH (2006). Nicotinic effects on cognitive function: behavioral characterization, pharmacological specification, and anatomic localization. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 184: 523–539.
Levin ED, Rezvani AH (2006). Nicotinic–antipsychotic drug interactions and cognitive function. EXS 98: 185–205.
Ligneau X, Lin J, Vanni-Mercier G, Jouvet M, Muir JL, Ganellin CR et al (1998). Neurochemical and behavioral effects of ciproxifan, a potent histamine H3-receptor antagonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 287: 658–666.
Lindner MD, Hogan JB, Hodges Jr DB, Orie AF, Chen P, Corsa JA et al (2006). Donepezil primarily attenuates scopolamine-induced deficits in psychomotor function, with moderate effects on simple conditioning and attention, and small effects on working memory and spatial mapping. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 188: 629–640.
Liu F, Grauer S, Kelley C, Navarra R, Graf R, Zhang G et al (2008). ADX47273 [S-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-methanone]: a novel metabotropic glutamate receptor 5-selective positive allosteric modulator with preclinical antipsychotic-like and procognitive activities. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 327: 827–839.
Mackintosh NJ, Holgate V (1969). Serial reversal training and nonreversal shift learning. J Comp Physiol Psychol 67: 89–93.
Mackintosh NJ, McGonigle B, Holgate V, Vanderver V (1968). Factors underlying improvement in serial reversal learning. Can J Psychol 22: 85–95.
Mancuso G, Lejeune M, Ansseau M (2001). Cigarette smoking and attention: processing speed or specific effects? Psychopharmacology 155: 372–378.
Mao SC, Hsiao YH, Gean PW (2006). Extinction training in conjunction with a partial agonist of the glycine site on the NMDA receptor erases memory trace. J Neurosci 26: 8892–8899.
Marighetto A, Valerio S, Desmedt A, Philippin JN, Trocme-Thibierge C, Morain P (2008a). Comparative effects of the alpha7 nicotinic partial agonist, S 24795, and the cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, against aging-related deficits in declarative and working memory in mice. Psychopharmacology 197: 499–508.
Marighetto A, Valerio S, Jaffard R, Mormede C, Munoz C, Bernard K et al (2008b). The AMPA modulator S 18986 improves declarative and working memory performances in aged mice. Behav Pharmacol 19: 235–244.
Marrs W, Kuperman J, Avedian T, Roth RH, Jentsch JD (2005). Alpha-2 adrenoceptor activation inhibits phencyclidine-induced deficits of spatial working memory in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 30: 1500–1510.
Massey PV, Bhabra G, Cho K, Brown MW, Bashir ZI (2001). Activation of muscarinic receptors induces protein synthesis-dependent long-lasting depression in the perirhinal cortex. Eur J Neurosci 14: 145–152.
Matsuoka N, Aigner TG (1996). -cycloserine, a partial agonist at the glycine site coupled to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, improves visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 278: 891–897.
McAlonan K, Brown VJ (2003). Orbital prefrontal cortex mediates reversal learning and not attentional set shifting in the rat. Behav Brain Res 146: 97–103.
McDonald RJ, White NM (1993). A triple dissociation of memory systems: hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsal striatum. Behav Neurosci 107: 3–22.
McGaughy J, Dalley JW, Morrison CH, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2002). Selective behavioral and neurochemical effects of cholinergic lesions produced by intrabasalis infusions of 192 IgG-saporin on attentional performance in a five-choice serial reaction time task. J Neurosci 22: 1905–1913.
McGaughy J, Decker MW, Sarter M (1999). Enhancement of sustained attention performance by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist ABT-418 in intact but not basal forebrain-lesioned rats. Psychopharmacology 144: 175–182.
McGaugh JL, McIntyre CK, Power AE (2002). Amygdala modulation of memory consolidation: interaction with other brain systems. Neurobiol Learn Mem 78: 539–552.
McGaugh JL, Roozendaal B (2009). Drug enhancement of memory consolidation: historical perspective and neurobiological implications. Psychopharmacology 202: 3–14.
McLean SL, Beck JP, Woolley ML, Neill JC (2008). A preliminary investigation into the effects of antipsychotics on sub-chronic phencyclidine-induced deficits in attentional set-shifting in female rats. Behav Brain Res 189: 152–158.
McLean SL, Idris NF, Woolley ML, Neill JC (2009a). D(1)-like receptor activation improves PCP-induced cognitive deficits in animal models: implications for mechanisms of improved cognitive function in schizophrenia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 19: 440–450.
McLean SL, Woolley ML, Thomas D, Neill JC. (2009b). Role of 5-HT receptor mechanisms in sub-chronic PCP-induced reversal learning deficits in the rat. Psychopharmacology 206: 403–414.
Mehta MA, Owen AM, Sahakian BJ, Mavaddat N, Pickard JD, Robbins TW (2000). Methylphenidate enhances working memory by modulating discrete frontal and parietal lobe regions in the human brain. J Neurosci 20: RC65.
Milstein JA, Lehmann O, Theobald DE, Dalley JW, Robbins TW (2007). Selective depletion of cortical noradrenaline by anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase-saporin impairs attentional function and enhances the effects of guanfacine in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 190: 51–63.
Mirza NR, Stolerman IP (1998). Nicotine enhances sustained attention in the rat under specific task conditions. Psychopharmacology 138: 266–274. This paper is among the first to show the potent attention-enhancing effects of nicotinic receptor agonists.
Mirza NR, Stolerman IP (2000). The role of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in attention. Psychopharmacology 148: 243–250.
Mitchell KJ, Johnson MK (2009). Source monitoring 15 years later: what have we learned from fMRI about the neural mechanisms of source memory? Psychol Bull 135: 638–677.
Moghaddam B (2004). Targeting metabotropic glutamate receptors for treatment of the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology 174: 39–44.
Moghaddam B, Adams BW (1998). Reversal of phencyclidine effects by a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist in rats. Science 281: 1349–1352.
Mohler EG, Franklin SR, Rueter LE, Fox GB, Decker MW, Browman KE (2010). ABT-594 improves performance in the 5-choice serial reaction time task under conditions of increased difficulty, sub-chronic dosing, and in poorly-performing subjects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 95: 146–157.
Morris RG, Garrud P, Rawlins JN, O’Keefe J (1982). Place navigation impaired in rats with hippocampal lesions. Nature 297: 681–683.
Morris RW, Bouton ME (2007). The effect of yohimbine on the extinction of conditioned fear: a role for context. Behav Neurosci 121: 501–514.
Mueller D, Porter JT, Quirk GJ (2008). Noradrenergic signaling in infralimbic cortex increases cell excitability and strengthens memory for fear extinction. J Neurosci 28: 369–375.
Muir JL, Dunnett SB, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (1992). Attentional functions of the forebrain cholinergic systems: effects of intraventricular hemicholinium, physostigmine, basal forebrain lesions and intracortical grafts on a multiple-choice serial reaction time task. Exp Brain Res 89: 611–622.
Muir JL, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (1994). AMPA-induced excitotoxic lesions of the basal forebrain: a significant role for the cortical cholinergic system in attentional function. J Neurosci 14: 2313–2326.
Muir JL, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (1995). Reversal of visual attentional dysfunction following lesions of the cholinergic basal forebrain by physostigmine and nicotine but not by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 118: 82–92.
Murchison CF, Zhang XY, Zhang WP, Ouyang M, Lee A, Thomas SA (2004). A distinct role for norepinephrine in memory retrieval. Cell 117: 131–143.
Murphy BL, Roth RH, Arnsten AF (1997). Clozapine reverses the spatial working memory deficits induced by FG7142 in monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology 16: 433–437.
Navarra R, Comery TA, Graf R, Rosenzweig-Lipson S, Day M (2008a). The 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist WAY-163909 decreases impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time test. Behav Brain Res 188: 412–415.
Navarra R, Graf R, Huang Y, Logue S, Comery T, Hughes Z et al (2008b). Effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on attention and impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time test. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32: 34–41.
Newman LA, Darling J, McGaughy J (2008). Atomoxetine reverses attentional deficits produced by noradrenergic deafferentation of medial prefrontal cortex. Psychopharmacology 200: 39–50. Emphasizes the role for noradrenergic mechanisms in the enhancements of attention produced by atomoxetine.
Noda Y, Mouri A, Ando Y, Waki Y, Yamada SN, Yoshimi A et al (2010). Galantamine ameliorates the impairment of recognition memory in mice repeatedly treated with methamphetamine: involvement of allosteric potentiation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and dopaminergic-ERK1/2 systems. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 1–12 (E-pub ahead of print 20 March).
O’Donnell CJ, Rogers BN, Bronk BS, Bryce DK, Coe JW, Cook KK et al (2010). Discovery of 4-(5-methyloxazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl)-1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane (CP-810,123), a novel alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist for the treatment of cognitive disorders in schizophrenia: synthesis, SAR development, and in vivo efficacy in cognition models. J Med Chem 53: 1222–1237.
O’Neill J, Fitten LJ, Siembieda DW, Ortiz F, Halgren E (2000). Effects of guanfacine on three forms of distraction in the aging macaque. Life Sci 67: 877–885.
O’Neill M, Brown VJ (2007). The effect of striatal dopamine depletion and the adenosine A2A antagonist KW-6002 on reversal learning in rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem 88: 75–81.
Olney JW, Newcomer JW, Farber NB (1999). NMDA receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Res 33: 523–533.
Packard MG (1999). Glutamate infused posttraining into the hippocampus or caudate-putamen differentially strengthens place and response learning. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 12881–12886.
Packard MG, Cahill L (2001). Affective modulation of multiple memory systems. Curr Opin Neurobiol 11: 752–776.
Packard MG, Cahill L, McGaugh JL (1994). Amygdala modulation of hippocampal-dependent and caudate nucleus-dependent memory processes. Proc Natl Acad Sci 91: 8477–8481. This paper shows that amygdalar mechanisms contribute to the acquisition of memories by other, distinct memory systems.
Packard MG, Knowlton BJ (2002). Learning and memory functions of the basal ganglia. Annu Rev Neurosci 2002: 25:563–25:593.
Packard MG, Regenold W, Quirion R, White NM (1990). Post-training injection of the acetylcholine M2 receptor antagonist AF-DX 116 improves memory. Brain Res 30524: 72–76.
Packard MG, Teather LA (1998). Amygdala modulation of multiple memory systems: hippocampus and caudate–putamen. Neurobiol Learn Mem 69: 163–203.
Packard MG, White NM (1989). Memory facilitation produced by dopamine agonists: role of receptor subtype and mnemonic requirements. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 33: 511–518.
Packard MG, White NM (1991). Dissociation of hippocampus and caudate nucleus memory systems by posttraining intracerebral injection of dopamine agonists. Behav Neurosci 105: 295–306.
Pamplona FA, Bitencourt RM, Takahashi RN (2008). Short- and long-term effects of cannabinoids on the extinction of contextual fear memory in rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem 90: 290–293.
Pamplona FA, Prediger RD, Pandolfo P, Takahashi RN (2006). The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 facilitates the extinction of contextual fear memory and spatial memory in rats. Psychopharmacology 188: 641–649.
Pantelis C, Barber FZ, Barnes TR, Nelson HE, Owen AM, Robbins TW (1999). Comparison of set-shifting ability in patients with chronic schizophrenia and frontal lobe damage. Schizophr Res 37: 251–270.
Paré D (2004). Presynaptic induction and expression of NMDA-dependent LTP. Trends Neurosci 27: 440–441.
Park EJ, Nam RH, Choi S, Lee CJ (2004). Carbachol induces a form of long-term potentiation in lateral amygdala. Neuroreport 15: 1339–1343.
Parnas AS, Weber M, Richardson R (2005). Effects of multiple exposures to D-cycloserine on extinction of conditioned fear in rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem 83: 224–231.
Passetti F, Dalley JW, Robbins TW (2003a). Double dissociation of serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms on attentional performance using a rodent five-choice reaction time task. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 165: 136–145.
Passetti F, Levita L, Robbins TW (2003b). Sulpiride alleviates the attentional impairments of rats with medial prefrontal cortex lesions. Behav Brain Res 138: 59–69.
Pavlov IP (1927). Conditioned Reflexes. Oxford University Press: London.
Pezze MA, Dalley JW, Robbins TW (2007). Differential roles of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens in attentional performance on the five-choice serial reaction time task. Neuropsychopharmacology 32: 273–283.
Pfeiffer UJ, Fendt M (2006). Prefrontal dopamine D4 receptors are involved in encoding fear extinction. NeuroReport 17: 847–850.
Pichat P, Bergis OE, Terranova JP, Urani A, Duarte C, Santucci V et al (2007). SSR180711, a novel selective alpha7 nicotinic receptor partial agonist: (II) efficacy in experimental models predictive of activity against cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 32: 17–34.
Ponnusamy R, Nissim HA, Barad M (2005). Systemic blockade of D2-like dopamine receptors facilitates extinction of conditioned fear in mice. Learn Mem 12: 399–406.
Porrino LJ, Daunais JB, Rogers GA, Hampson RE, Deadwyler SA (2005). Facilitation of task performance and removal of the effects of sleep deprivation by an ampakine (CX717) in nonhuman primates. PLoS Biol 3: e299 (This paper shows the potential cognitive-enhancing profile of a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA/glutamate receptor).
Port RL, Seybold KS (1998). Manipulation of NMDA-receptor activity alters extinction of an instrumental response in rats. Physiol Behav 64: 391–393.
Pozzi L, Greco B, Sacchetti G, Leoni G, Invernizzi RW, Carli M (2010). Blockade of serotonin 2A receptors prevents PCP-induced attentional performance deficit and CREB phosphorylation in the dorsal striatum of DBA/2 mice. Psychopharmacology 208: 387–399.
Prediger RD, De-Mello N, Takahashi RN (2006). Pilocarpine improves olfactory discrimination and social recognition memory deficits in 24 month-old rats. Eur J Pharmacol 531: 176–182.
Puumala T, Riekkinen Sr P, Sirvio J (1997). Modulation of vigilance and behavioral activation by alpha-1 adrenoceptors in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 56: 705–712.
Quarta D, Naylor CG, Stolerman IP (2007). The serotonin 2C receptor agonist Ro-60-0175 attenuates effects of nicotine in the five-choice serial reaction time task and in drug discrimination. Psychopharmacology 193: 391–402.
Quartermain D, Clemente J, Shemer A (1993). 5-HT1A agonists disrupt memory of fear conditioning in mice. Biol Psychiatry 33: 247–254.
Quirk GJ, Mueller D (2008). Neural mechanisms of extinction learning and retrieval. Neuropsychopharmacology 33: 56–72.
Quirk GJ, Russo GK, Barron JL, Lebron K (2000). The role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in the recovery of extinguished fear. J Neurosci 20: 6225–6231.
Ragozzino ME (2002). The effects of dopamine D(1) receptor blockade in the prelimbic–infralimbic areas on behavioral flexibility. Learn Mem 9: 18–28.
Ragozzino ME, Detrick S, Kesner RP (1999). Involvement of the prelimbic–infralimbic areas of the rodent prefrontal cortex in behavioral flexibility for place and response learning. J Neurosci 19: 4585–4594.
Ragozzino ME, Ragozzino KE, Mizumori SJ, Kesner RP (2002). Role of the dorsomedial striatum in behavioral flexibility for response and visual cue discrimination learning. Behav Neurosci 116: 105–115.
Ramos BP, Stark D, Verduzco L, van Dyck CH, Arnsten AF (2006). Alpha2A-adrenoceptor stimulation improves prefrontal cortical regulation of behavior through inhibition of cAMP signaling in aging animals. Learn Mem 13: 770–776.
Rescorla RA, Heth CD (1975). Reinstatement of fear to an extinguished conditioned stimulus. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 1: 88–96.
Rezvani AH, Bushnell PJ, Levin ED (2002). Effects of nicotine and mecamylamine on choice accuracy in an operant visual signal detection task in female rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 164: 369–375.
Rezvani AH, Caldwell DP, Levin ED (2005). Nicotinic–serotonergic drug interactions and attentional performance in rats. Psychopharmacology 179: 521–528.
Rezvani AH, Caldwell DP, Levin ED (2006). Chronic nicotine interactions with clozapine and risperidone and attentional function in rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30: 190–197.
Rezvani AH, Levin ED (2003). Nicotinic–glutamatergic interactions and attentional performance on an operant visual signal detection task in female rats. Eur J Pharmacol 465: 83–90.
Rezvani AH, Levin ED (2004). Nicotine-antipsychotic drug interactions and attentional performance in female rats. Eur J Pharmacol 486: 175–182.
Rezvani AH, Kholdebarin E, Brucato FH, Callahan PM, Lowe DA, Levin ED (2009). Effect of R3487/MEM3454, a novel nicotinic alpha7 receptor partial agonist and 5-HT3 antagonist on sustained attention in rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33: 269–275.
Rezvani AH, Tizabi Y, Getachew B, Hauser SR, Caldwell DP, Hunter C et al (2008). Chronic nicotine and dizocilpine effects on nicotinic and NMDA glutamatergic receptor regulation: interactions with clozapine actions and attentional performance in rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32: 1030–1040.
Rhodes SE, Killcross S (2004). Lesions of rat infralimbic cortex enhance recovery and reinstatement of an appetitive Pavlovian response. Learn Mem 11: 611–616.
Robbins SJ (1990). Mechanisms underlying spontaneous recovery in autoshaping. J Exp Psychol 16: 235–249.
Robbins TW (2002). The 5-choice serial reaction time task: behavioural pharmacology and functional neurochemistry. Psychopharmacology 63: 362–380.
Robbins TW, Murphy ER (2006). Behavioural pharmacology: 40+ years of progress, with a focus on glutamate receptors and cognition. Trends Pharmacol Sci 27: 141–148.
Robbins TW, Roberts AC (2007). Differential regulation of fronto-executive function by the monoamines and acetylcholine. Cereb Cortex 17(Suppl 1): i151–i160.
Robbins TW, Semple J, Kumar R, Truman MI, Shorter J, Ferraro A et al (1997). Effects of scopolamine on delayed-matching-to-sample and paired associates tests of visual memory and learning in human subjects: comparison with diazepam and implications for dementia. Psychopharmacology 134: 95–106.
Roberts AC, De Salvia MA, Wilkinson LS, Collins P, Muir JL, Everitt BJ et al (1994). 6-Hydroxydopamine lesions of the prefrontal cortex in monkeys enhance performance on an analog of the wisconsin card sort test: possible interactions with subcortical dopamine. J Neurosci 14: 2531–2544.
Robinson ES, Eagle DM, Mar AC, Bari A, Banerjee G, Jiang X et al (2008). Similar effects of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine on three distinct forms of impulsivity in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology 33: 1028–1037. A thorough demonstration of how atomoxetine exerts cognitive enhancement in a broad range of distinct tests of impulsivity.
Rodefer JS, Nguyen TN, Karlsson JJ, Arnt J (2008). Reversal of subchronic PCP-induced deficits in attentional set shifting in rats by sertindole and a 5-HT6 receptor antagonist: comparison among antipsychotics. Neuropsychopharmacology 11: 2657–2666.
Roncarati R, Scali C, Comery TA, Grauer SM, Aschmi S, Bothmann H et al (2009). Procognitive and neuroprotective activity of a novel alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist for treatment of neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 329: 459–468.
Roozendaal B, Castello NA, Vedana G, Barsegyan A, McGaugh JL (2008). Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates consolidation of object recognition memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem 90: 576–579.
Ruotsalainen S, Sirvio J, Jakala P, Puumala T, MacDonald E, Riekkinen Sr P. (1997). Differential effects of three 5-HT receptor antagonists on the performance of rats in attentional and working memory tasks. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 7: 99–108.
Safer DJ, Allen RP (1971). The central effects of scopolamine in man. Biol Psychiatry 3: 347–355.
Salinas JA, Introini-Collison IB, Dalmaz C, McGaugh JL (1997). Posttraining intraamygdala infusions of oxotremorine and propranolol modulate storage of memory for reductions in reward magnitude. Neurobiol Learn Mem 68: 51–59.
Sarter M, Parikh V (2005). Choline transporters, cholinergic transmission and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci 6: 48–56.
Sarter M, Parikh V, Howe WM (2009). nAChR agonist-induced cognition enhancement: integration of cognitive and neuronal mechanisms. Biochem Pharmacol 78: 658–667.
Scali C, Giovannini MG, Bartolini L, Prosperi C, Hinz V, Schmidt B et al (1997). Effect of metrifonate on extracellular brain acetylcholine and object recognition in aged rats. Eur J Pharmacol 325: 173–180.
Schoenbaum G, Roesch MR, Stalnaker TA (2006). Orbitofrontal cortex, decision-making and drug addiction. Trends Neurosci 29: 116–124.
Semenova S, Stolerman IP, Markou A (2007). Chronic nicotine administration improves attention while nicotine withdrawal induces performance deficits in the 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 87: 360–368.
Seu E, Jentsch JD (2009). Effect of acute and repeated treatment with desipramine or methylphenidate on serial reversal learning in rats. Neuropharmacology 57: 665–672.
Seu E, Lang A, Rivera RJ, Jentsch JD (2009). Inhibition of the norepinephrine transporter improves behavioral flexibility in rats and monkeys. Psychopharmacology 202: 505–519. This paper shows that, across species, atomoxetine is capable of enhancing behavioral flexibility by reducing perseverative interference.
Shapiro ML, Eichenbaum H (1999). Hippocampus as a memory map: synaptic plasticity and memory encoding by hippocampal neurons. Hippocampus 9: 365–384.
Sharp T, Boothman L, Raley J, Quérée P (2007). Important messages in the ‘post’: recent discoveries in 5-HT neurone feedback control. Trends Pharmacol Sci 28: 629–636.
Slamecka NJ (1968). A methodological analysis of shift paradigms in human discrimination learning. Psychol Bull 69: 423–438.
Smith SM, Uslaner JM, Yao L, Mullins CM, Surles NO, Huszar SL et al (2009). The behavioral and neurochemical effects of a novel D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor compound 8 [4H-thieno [3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxylic acid] and D-serine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 328: 921–930.
Sotres-Bayon F, Bush DE, Ledoux JE (2007). Acquisition of fear extinction requires activation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the lateral amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology 32: 1929–1940.
Southam E, Cilia J, Gartlon JE, Woolley ML, Lacroix LP, Jennings CA et al (2009). Preclinical investigations into the antipsychotic potential of the novel histamine H3 receptor antagonist GSK207040. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 201: 483–494.
Spinelli S, Ballard T, Gatti-McArthur S, Richards GJ, Kapps M, Woltering T et al (2005). Effects of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY354740 on computerized tasks of attention and working memory in marmoset monkeys. Psychopharmacology 179: 292–302.
Spinelli S, Ballard T, Feldon J, Higgins GA, Pryce CR (2006). Enhancing effects of nicotine and impairing effects of scopolamine on distinct aspects of performance in computerized attention and working memory tasks in marmoset monkeys. Neuropharmacology 51: 238–250.
Steere JC, Arnsten AF (1997). The alpha-2A noradrenergic receptor agonist guanfacine improves visual object discrimination reversal performance in aged rhesus monkeys. Behav Neurosci 111: 883–891.
Stefani MR, Moghaddam B (2010). Activation of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors attenuates deficits in cognitive flexibility induced by NMDA receptor blockade. Eur J Pharmacol 639: 26–32.
Stolerman IP, Mirza NR, Hahn B, Shoaib M (2000). Nicotine in an animal model of attention. Eur J Pharmacol 393: 147–154.
Sukhotina IA, Dravolina OA, Novitskaya Y, Zvartau EE, Danysz W, Bespalov AY (2008). Effects of mGlu1 receptor blockade on working memory, time estimation, and impulsivity in rats. Psychopharmacology 196: 211–220.
Sydserff S, Sutton EJ, Song D, Quirk MC, Maciag C, Li C et al (2009). Selective alpha7 nicotinic receptor activation by AZD0328 enhances cortical dopamine release and improves learning and attentional processes. Biochem Pharmacol 78: 880–888.
Tait DS, Brown VJ, Farovik A, Theobald DE, Dalley JW, Robbins TW (2007). Lesions of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle impair attentional set-shifting in the rat. Eur J Neurosci 25: 3719–3724.
Tait DS, Marston HM, Shahid M, Brown VJ (2009). Asenapine restores cognitive flexibility in rats with medial prefrontal cortex lesions. Psychopharmacology 202: 295–306.
Terry Jr AV, Buccafusco JJ, Bartoszyk GD (2005). Selective serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist EMD 281014 improves delayed matching performance in young and aged rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology 179: 725–732.
Tietje KR, Anderson DJ, Bitner RS, Blomme EA, Brackemeyer PJ, Briggs CA et al (2008). Preclinical characterization of A-582941: a novel alpha7 neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist with broad spectrum cognition-enhancing properties. CNS Neurosci Ther 14: 65–82.
Torta DM, Castelli L, Zibetti M, Lopiano L, Geminiani G. (2009). On the role of dopamine replacement therapy in decision-making, working memory, and reward in Parkinson's disease: does the therapy-dose matter? Brain Cogn 71: 84–91.
Tsukada H, Nishiyama S, Fukumoto D, Ohba H, Sato K, Kakiuchi T (2004). Effects of acute acetylcholinesterase inhibition on the cerebral cholinergic neuronal system and cognitive function: functional imaging of the conscious monkey brain using animal PET in combination with microdialysis. Synapse 52: 1–10.
Tunbridge EM, Bannerman DM, Sharp T, Harrison PJ (2004). Catechol-o-methyltransferase inhibition improves set-shifting performance and elevates stimulated dopamine release in the rat prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 24: 5331–5535.
Turner DC, Clark L, Dowson J, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (2004a). Modafinil improves cognition and response inhibition in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 55: 1031–1040.
Turner DC, Clark L, Pomarol-Clotet E, McKenna P, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (2004b). Modafinil improves cognition and attentional set shifting in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 29: 1363–1373.
Turner DC, Robbins TW, Clark L, Aron AR, Dowson J, Sahakian BJ (2003). Cognitive enhancing effects of modafinil in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 165: 260–269.
Tzavara ET, Bymaster FP, Overshiner CD, Davis RJ, Perry KW, Wolff M et al (2006). Procholinergic and memory enhancing properties of the selective norepinephrine uptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Mol Psychiatry 11: 187–195.
Walker DL, Ressler KJ, Lu KT, Davis M (2002). Facilitation of conditioned fear extinction by systemic administration or intra-amygdala infusions of D-cycloserine as assessed with fear-potentiated startle in rats. J Neurosci 22: 2343–2351.
Waters KA, Burnham KE, O’Connor D, Dawson GR, Dias R (2005). Assessment of modafinil on attentional processes in a five-choice serial reaction time test in the rat. J Psychopharmacol 19: 149–158.
Weber M, Hart J, Richardson R (2007). Effects of d-cycloserine on extinction of learned fear to an olfactory cue. Neurobiol Learn Mem 87: 476–482.
Weiner I, Feldon J (1986). Reversal and nonreversal shifts under amphetamine. Psychopharmacology 89: 355–359.
Weiner I, Feldon J, Ben-Shahar O (1986). Simultaneous brightness discrimination and reversal: the effects of amphetamine administration in the two stages. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 25: 939–942.
Westbrook RF, Iordanova M, McNally G, Richardson R, Harris JA (2002). Reinstatement of fear to an extinguished conditioned stimulus: two roles for context. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 28: 97–110.
Wheeler MA, Stuss DT, Tulving E (1997). Toward a theory of episodic memory: the frontal lobes and autonoetic consciousness. Psychol Bull 121: 331–354.
Wickens JR, Begg AJ, Arbuthnott GW (1996). Dopamine reverses the depression of rat corticostriatal synapses which normally follows high-frequency stimulation of cortex in vitro. Neuroscience 70: 1–5.
Wingard JC, Packard MG (2008). The amygdala and emotional modulation of competition between cognitive and habit memory. Behav Brain Res 193: 126–131.
Winstanley CA, Chudasama Y, Dalley JW, Theobald DE, Glennon JC, Robbins TW (2003). Intra-prefrontal 8-OH-DPAT and M100907 improve visuospatial attention and decrease impulsivity on the five-choice serial reaction time task in rats. Psychopharmacology 167: 304–314.
Winstanley CA, Dalley JW, Theobald DE, Robbins TW (2004a). Fractionating impulsivity: contrasting effects of central 5-HT depletion on different measures of impulsive behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology 29: 1331–1343.
Winstanley CA, Theobald DE, Dalley JW, Glennon JC, Robbins TW (2004b). 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor antagonists have opposing effects on a measure of impulsivity: interactions with global 5-HT depletion. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 176: 376–385.
Winstanley CA, Theobald DE, Cardinal RN, Robbins TW (2004c). Contrasting roles of basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in impulsive choice. J Neuroscience 24: 4718–4722.
Winters BD, Saksida LM, Bussey TJ (2008). Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32: 1055–1070.
Wishka DG, Walker DP, Yates KM, Reitz SC, Jia S, Myers JK et al (2006). Discovery of N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]furo[2,3-c]pyridine-5-carboxamide, an agonist of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, for the potential treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: synthesis and structure–activity relationship. J Med Chem 49: 4425–4436.
Wolff MC, Leander JD (2003). Comparison of the effects of antipsychotics on a delayed radial maze task in the rat. Psychopharmacology 168: 410–416.
Woods AM, Bouton ME (2006). -cycloserine facilitates extinction but does not eliminate renewal of the conditioned emotional response. Behav Neurosci 120: 1159–1162.
Wood SC, Anagnostaras SG (2009). Memory and psychostimulants: modulation of Pavlovian fear conditioning by amphetamine in C57BL/6 mice. Psychopharmacology 202: 197–206.
Woolley ML, Waters KA, Gartlon JE, Lacroix LP, Jennings C, Shaughnessy F et al (2009). Evaluation of the pro-cognitive effects of the AMPA receptor positive modulator, 5-(1-piperidinylcarbonyl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (CX691), in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 202: 343–354.
Woolley ML, Waters KA, Reavill C, Bull S, Lacroix LP, Martyn AJ et al (2008). Selective dopamine D4 receptor agonist (A-412997) improves cognitive performance and stimulates motor activity without influencing reward-related behaviour in rat. Behav Pharmacol 19: 765–776.
Young JW, Crawford N, Kelly JS, Kerr LE, Marston HM, Spratt C et al (2007). Impaired attention is central to the cognitive deficits observed in alpha 7 deficient mice. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 17: 145–155.
Young JW, Finlayson K, Spratt C, Marston HM, Crawford N, Kelly JS et al (2004). Nicotine improves sustained attention in mice: evidence for involvement of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Neuropsychopharmacology 29: 891–900.
Zahrt J, Taylor JR, Mathew RG, Arnsten AF (1997). Supranormal stimulation of D1 dopamine receptors in the rodent prefrontal cortex impairs spatial working memory performance. J Neurosci 17: 8528–8535.
Zanto TP, Gazzaley A (2009). Neural suppression of irrelevant information underlies optimal working memory performance. J Neurosci 29: 3059–3066.
Zolkowska D, Jain R, Rothman RB, Partilla JS, Roth BL, Setola V et al (2009). Evidence for the involvement of dopamine transporters in behavioral stimulant effects of modafinil. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 329: 738–746.