Letter

Shoot-to-root mobile polypeptides involved in systemic regulation of nitrogen acquisition

  • Nature Plants 3, Article number: 17029 (2017)
  • doi:10.1038/nplants.2017.29
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Abstract

Plants uptake nitrogen (N) from the soil mainly in the form of nitrate. However, nitrate is often distributed heterogeneously in natural soil. Plants, therefore, have a systemic long-distance signalling mechanism by which N starvation on one side of the root leads to a compensatory N uptake on the other N-rich side1,2. This systemic N acquisition response is triggered by a root-to-shoot mobile peptide hormone, C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP), originating from the N-starved roots3,4, but the molecular nature of the descending shoot-to-root signal remains elusive. Here, we show that phloem-specific polypeptides that are induced in leaves upon perception of root-derived CEP act as descending long-distance mobile signals translocated to each root. These shoot-derived polypeptides, which we named CEP DOWNSTREAM 1 (CEPD1) and CEPD2, upregulate the expression of the nitrate transporter gene NRT2.1 in roots specifically when nitrate is present in the rhizosphere. Arabidopsis plants deficient in this pathway show impaired systemic N acquisition response accompanied with N-deficiency symptoms. These fundamental mechanistic insights should provide a conceptual framework for understanding systemic nutrient acquisition responses in plants.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Y. Sugisawa (The University of Tokyo) for the microarray analysis. This research was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) (number 25221105) and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (number 15H05957) from the Japan Society for Promotion of Science.

Author information

Author notes

    • Yuri Ohkubo
    •  & Mina Tanaka

    These authors contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations

  1. Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602, Japan

    • Yuri Ohkubo
    • , Mina Tanaka
    • , Ryo Tabata
    • , Mari Ogawa-Ohnishi
    •  & Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi

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Contributions

Y.M. conceived this project and designed the experiments with input from Y.O., M.T., R.T. and M.O.-O. All authors performed the experiments and interpreted the results. Y.M. wrote the manuscript with input from Y.O.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi.

Supplementary information

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    Supplementary Information

    Supplementary Figures 1–7 and Supplementary Tables 1 and 2.