Letter

Scalable templated growth of graphene nanoribbons on SiC

  • Nature Nanotechnology volume 5, pages 727731 (2010)
  • doi:10.1038/nnano.2010.192
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Abstract

In spite of its excellent electronic properties, the use of graphene in field-effect transistors is not practical at room temperature without modification of its intrinsically semimetallic nature to introduce a bandgap1,2,3,4. Quantum confinement effects can create a bandgap in graphene nanoribbons, but existing nanoribbon fabrication methods are slow and often produce disordered edges that compromise electronic properties2,3,4. Here, we demonstrate the self-organized growth of graphene nanoribbons on a templated silicon carbide substrate prepared using scalable photolithography and microelectronics processing. Direct nanoribbon growth avoids the need for damaging post-processing. Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electrostatic force microscopy confirm that nanoribbons as narrow as 40 nm can be grown at specified positions on the substrate. Our prototype graphene devices exhibit quantum confinement at low temperatures (4 K), and an on–off ratio of 10 and carrier mobilities up to 2,700 cm2 V−1 s−1 at room temperature. We demonstrate the scalability of this approach by fabricating 10,000 top-gated graphene transistors on a 0.24‐cm2 SiC chip, which is the largest density of graphene devices reported to date.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge helpful conversations with A. Zangwill, V. Borovikov and F. Ming. This research was supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation, the National Science Foundation under grant no. DMR-0820382, and the Nanoelectronics Research Initiative Institute for Nanoelectronics Discovery and Exploration (INDEX).

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0430, USA

    • M. Sprinkle
    • , M. Ruan
    • , Y. Hu
    • , J. Hankinson
    • , M. Rubio-Roy
    • , B. Zhang
    • , X. Wu
    • , C. Berger
    •  & W. A. de Heer
  2. CNRS/Institut Néel, BP166, 38042 Grenoble, France

    • C. Berger

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Contributions

W.A.dH. and C.B. conceived the project, and W.A.dH., C.B., M.S. and M.R. designed the experiment. W.A.dH. supervised the project, with assistance from C.B. M.S., M.R. and C.B. performed the experiment. Y.H., J.H. and B.Z. helped with sample preparation. M.R.R. helped with Al2O3 deposition. X.W. and J.H. assisted with low-temperature measurement. M.S. and C.B. analysed the data, and M.S. wrote the paper.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to W. A. de Heer.

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