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Author information


  1. National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), London, UK.

    • Nathalie Percie du Sert
  2. Certus Technology Associates Ltd, Exeter, UK.

    • Ian Bamsey
    •  & Brian Lings
  3. GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Stevenage, UK.

    • Simon T Bate
  4. Biomedical Services, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

    • Manuel Berdoy
  5. Envigo, Alconbury, UK.

    • Robin A Clark
  6. School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

    • Innes C Cuthill
  7. University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

    • Derek Fry
  8. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK.

    • Natasha A Karp
  9. Quantitative Biology IMED, AstraZeneca R&D, Cambridge, UK.

    • Natasha A Karp
  10. Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

    • Malcolm Macleod
  11. Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, King's College London, London, UK.

    • Lawrence Moon
  12. Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, UK.

    • S Clare Stanford


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All authors were part of an NC3Rs working group (WG). N.P.d.S. initiated the project and convened the WG. I.B. developed the conceptual design. The standard notation of the EDA was agreed within the WG and formalized by I.B. and B.L. The development of the rules behind the logical reasoning was led by N.P.d.S. and B.L., with input from the WG, and formalized by B.L. All authors wrote the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nathalie Percie du Sert.