Green, C.B., Takahashi, J.S. & Bass, J. The meter of metabolism. Cell 134, 728–742 (2008).
Reppert, S.M. & Weaver, D.R. Coordination of circadian timing in mammals. Nature 418, 935–941 (2002).
Marcheva, B. et al. Disruption of the clock components CLOCK and BMAL1 leads to hypoinsulinaemia and diabetes. Nature 466, 627–631 (2010).
Lamia, K.A., Storch, K.F. & Weitz, C.J. Physiological significance of a peripheral tissue circadian clock. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 15172–15177 (2008).
Oishi, K. et al. Disrupted fat absorption attenuates obesity induced by a high-fat diet in Clock mutant mice. FEBS Lett. 580, 127–130 (2006).
Turek, F.W. et al. Obesity and metabolic syndrome in circadian Clock mutant mice. Science 308, 1043–1045 (2005).
Rudic, R.D. et al. BMAL1 and CLOCK, two essential components of the circadian clock, are involved in glucose homeostasis. PLoS Biol. 2, e377 (2004).
Ellingsen, T., Bener, A. & Gehani, A.A. Study of shift work and risk of coronary events. J. R. Soc. Promot. Health 127, 265–267 (2007).
Karlsson, B., Knutsson, A. & Lindahl, B. Is there an association between shift work and having a metabolic syndrome? Results from a population based study of 27,485 people. Occup. Environ. Med. 58, 747–752 (2001).
Spiegel, K., Tasali, E., Leproult, R. & Van Cauter, E. Effects of poor and short sleep on glucose metabolism and obesity risk. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 5, 253–261 (2009).
Ahima, R.S. et al. Role of leptin in the neuroendocrine response to fasting. Nature 382, 250–252 (1996).
Cowley, M.A. et al. Leptin activates anorexigenic POMC neurons through a neural network in the arcuate nucleus. Nature 411, 480–484 (2001).
Mizuno, T.M. & Mobbs, C.V. Hypothalamic agouti-related protein messenger ribonucleic acid is inhibited by leptin and stimulated by fasting. Endocrinology 140, 814–817 (1999).
Lam, T.K. et al. Hypothalamic sensing of circulating fatty acids is required for glucose homeostasis. Nat. Med. 11, 320–327 (2005).
Pocai, A. et al. Restoration of hypothalamic lipid sensing normalizes energy and glucose homeostasis in overfed rats. J. Clin. Invest. 116, 1081–1091 (2006).
Cintra, D.E. et al. Unsaturated fatty acids revert diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation in obesity. PLoS ONE 7, e30571 (2012).
Bunger, M.K. et al. Mop3 is an essential component of the master circadian pacemaker in mammals. Cell 103, 1009–1017 (2000).
Bunger, M.K. et al. Progressive arthropathy in mice with a targeted disruption of the Mop3/Bmal-1 locus. Genesis 41, 122–132 (2005).
Kondratov, R.V., Kondratova, A.A., Gorbacheva, V.Y., Vykhovanets, O.V. & Antoch, M.P. Early aging and age-related pathologies in mice deficient in BMAL1, the core component of the circadian clock. Genes Dev. 20, 1868–1873 (2006).
Westgate, E.J. et al. Genetic components of the circadian clock regulate thrombogenesis in vivo. Circulation 117, 2087–2095 (2008).
He, W. et al. Adipose-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ knockout causes insulin resistance in fat and liver but not in muscle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 15712–15717 (2003).
Clausen, B.E., Burkhardt, C., Reith, W., Renkawitz, R. & Forster, I. Conditional gene targeting in macrophages and granulocytes using LysMcre mice. Transgenic Res. 8, 265–277 (1999).
Etchegaray, J.P., Lee, C., Wade, P.A. & Reppert, S.M. Rhythmic histone acetylation underlies transcription in the mammalian circadian clock. Nature 421, 177–182 (2003).
Ueda, H.R. et al. System-level identification of transcriptional circuits underlying mammalian circadian clocks. Nat. Genet. 37, 187–192 (2005).
Crumbley, C., Wang, Y., Kojetin, D.J. & Burris, T.P. Characterization of the core mammalian clock component, NPAS2, as a REV-ERBα/RORα target gene. J. Biol. Chem. 285, 35386–35392 (2010).
Debruyne, J.P. et al. A clock shock: mouse CLOCK is not required for circadian oscillator function. Neuron 50, 465–477 (2006).
Miller, B.H. et al. Circadian and CLOCK-controlled regulation of the mouse transcriptome and cell proliferation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 3342–3347 (2007).
Kornmann, B., Schaad, O., Bujard, H., Takahashi, J.S. & Schibler, U. System-driven and oscillator-dependent circadian transcription in mice with a conditionally active liver clock. PLoS Biol. 5, e34 (2007).
Eguchi, J. et al. Transcriptional control of adipose lipid handling by IRF4. Cell Metab. 13, 249–259 (2011).
Maffei, M. et al. Leptin levels in human and rodent: measurement of plasma leptin and ob RNA in obese and weight-reduced subjects. Nat. Med. 1, 1155–1161 (1995).
El-Haschimi, K., Pierroz, D.D., Hileman, S.M., Bjorbaek, C. & Flier, J.S. Two defects contribute to hypothalamic leptin resistance in mice with diet-induced obesity. J. Clin. Invest. 105, 1827–1832 (2000).
Stunkard, A. et al. Binge eating disorder and the night-eating syndrome. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 20, 1–6 (1996).
Hogenesch, J.B., Gu, Y.Z., Jain, S. & Bradfield, C.A. The basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS orphan MOP3 forms transcriptionally active complexes with circadian and hypoxia factors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5474–5479 (1998).
Oh, D.Y. et al. GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects. Cell 142, 687–698 (2010).
Wei, E. et al. Loss of TGH/Ces3 in mice decreases blood lipids, improves glucose tolerance, and increases energy expenditure. Cell Metab. 11, 183–193 (2010).
Minokoshi, Y. et al. AMP-kinase regulates food intake by responding to hormonal and nutrient signals in the hypothalamus. Nature 428, 569–574 (2004).
Ropelle, E.R. et al. IL-6 and IL-10 anti-inflammatory activity links exercise to hypothalamic insulin and leptin sensitivity through IKKβ and ER stress inhibition. PLoS Biol. 8, e1000465 (2010).
Kiessling, S., Eichele, G. & Oster, H. Adrenal glucocorticoids have a key role in circadian resynchronization in a mouse model of jet lag. J. Clin. Invest. 120, 2600–2609 (2010).
Pietiläinen, K.H. et al. Association of lipidome remodeling in the adipocyte membrane with acquired obesity in humans. PLoS Biol. 9, e1000623 (2011).
Arble, D.M., Bass, J., Laposky, A.D., Vitaterna, M.H. & Turek, F.W. Circadian timing of food intake contributes to weight gain. Obesity (Silver Spring) 17, 2100–2102 (2009).
Stucchi, P. et al. Circadian feeding drive of metabolic activity in adipose tissue and not hyperphagia triggers overweight in mice: is there a role of the pentose-phosphate pathway? Endocrinology 153, 690–699 (2012).
Hatori, M. et al. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet. Cell Metab. 15, 848–860 (2012).
Masaki, T. et al. Involvement of hypothalamic histamine H1 receptor in the regulation of feeding rhythm and obesity. Diabetes 53, 2250–2260 (2004).
Salgado-Delgado, R., Angeles-Castellanos, M., Saderi, N., Buijs, R.M. & Escobar, C. Food intake during the normal activity phase prevents obesity and circadian desynchrony in a rat model of night work. Endocrinology 151, 1019–1029 (2010).
Fonken, L.K. et al. Light at night increases body mass by shifting the time of food intake. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 18664–18669 (2010).
Scheer, F.A., Hilton, M.F., Mantzoros, C.S. & Shea, S.A. Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 4453–4458 (2009).
Reyes, T.M., Walker, J.R., DeCino, C., Hogenesch, J.B. & Sawchenko, P.E. Categorically distinct acute stressors elicit dissimilar transcriptional profiles in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. J. Neurosci. 23, 5607–5616 (2003).
Roberts, L.D. et al. Increased hepatic oxidative metabolism distinguishes the action of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ from peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in the ob/ob mouse. Genome Med. 1, 115 (2009).
Irizarry, R.A. et al. Summaries of Affymetrix GeneChip probe level data. Nucleic Acids Res. 31, e15 (2003).
Grant, G.R., Liu, J. & Stoeckert, C.J. Jr. A practical false discovery rate approach to identifying patterns of differential expression in microarray data. Bioinformatics 21, 2684–2690 (2005).