Figure 3 : Electrical and thermal responses to a square wave potential.

From: Turning bubbles on and off during boiling using charged surfactants

Figure 3

(a) Negatively charged SDS had an out-of-phase temperature response and an in-phase HTC response compared with the voltage input. Conversely, (b) positively charged DTAB had an in-phase temperature response and an out-of-phase HTC response compared with the voltage input. For both surfactants at 2.6 mM, the input voltage switched between −0.1 and −2.0 V with a period of 60 s and the current response was capacitive.