Figure 1 : Turning boiling on and off with a potential switch.

From: Turning bubbles on and off during boiling using charged surfactants

Figure 1

(a) Pool boiling of a solution of 2.6 mM SDS (negatively charged) in DI water at a constant heater power of 60 W with potential applied between the silver foil boiling surface and an immersed titanium counter electrode. A (b) −0.1 to −2.0 V switch decreased bubble nucleation within 600 ms due to electrostatic desorption of SDS from boiling surface. A (c) −2.0 to −0.1 V switch increased nucleation within 300 ms due to adsorption of SDS (see Supplementary Movie 1). Scale bar, 1 cm.