Article

CRT1 is a nuclear-translocated MORC endonuclease that participates in multiple levels of plant immunity

  • Nature Communications 3, Article number: 1297 (2012)
  • doi:10.1038/ncomms2279
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Abstract

Arabidopsis thaliana CRT1 (compromised for recognition of Turnip Crinkle Virus) was previously shown to be required for effector-triggered immunity. Sequence analyses previously revealed that CRT1 contains the ATPase and S5 domains characteristic of Microchidia (MORC) proteins; these proteins are associated with DNA modification and repair. Here we show that CRT1 and its closest homologue, CRH1, are also required for pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity, basal resistance, non-host resistance and systemic acquired resistance. Consistent with its role in PAMP-triggered immunity, CRT1 interacted with the PAMP recognition receptor FLS2. Subcellular fractionation and transmission electron microscopy detected a subpopulation of CRT1 in the nucleus, whose levels increased following PAMP treatment or infection with an avirulent pathogen. These results, combined with the demonstration that CRT1 binds DNA, exhibits endonuclease activity, and affects tolerance to the DNA-damaging agent mitomycin C, argue that this prototypic eukaryotic member of the MORC superfamily has important nuclear functions during immune response activation.

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Change history

  • Updated online 26 February 2013

    The original version of this Article contained a typographical error in the spelling of the author Hyung-Gon Mang, which was incorrectly given as Hyong-Gon Mang. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

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Acknowledgements

We thank D’Maris Dempsey for critical comments on the manuscript and Euna Kim for technical support. We thank Andrew Bent for the FLS2 antibody and fls2-101, Xinnian Dong for ssn1, Shauna Somerville for pen2-2, and William Fry for P. infestans. We also thank Birgit Samans and Floyd Weckerly for advice in statistical analysis and Joseph E. Peters, Nihal Dharmasiri, Gregor Langen and Martina Claar for advice, discussion and technical support. This work was supported by grants from NSF (IOB-0641576) to D.F.K. and P.K., NSF (IOS-0820405) to D.F.K., Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Germany to K.H.K., and Texas State University-Faculty Startup Program to H.G.K.

Author information

Author notes

    • Hyong Woo Choi
    • , Sabrina von Einem
    •  & Patricia Manosalva

    These authors contributed equally to this work.

    • Po-Pu Liu

    Present Address: RiceTec Inc., Alvin, Texas 77511, USA.

Affiliations

  1. Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

    • Hong-Gu Kang
    • , Hyong Woo Choi
    • , Patricia Manosalva
    • , Po-Pu Liu
    • , Magali Moreau
    •  & Daniel F. Klessig
  2. Department of Biology, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666, USA.

    • Hong-Gu Kang
    •  & Hyung-Gon Mang
  3. Research Center for Bio Systems, Land Use, and Nutrition; Institute for Botany, Justus Liebig University, D-35392 Giessen, Germany.

    • Sabrina von Einem
    • , Katrin Ehlers
    • , Stefanie V. Buxa
    •  & Karl-Heinz Kogel
  4. Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546, USA.

    • Pradeep Kachroo

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Contributions

H.G.K., H.W.C., S.v.E., P.M., K.E., P.L., P.K., K.K. and D.F.K. designed experiments. H.G.K., H.W.C., S.v.E., P.M., K.E., P.L., S.B., H.G.M. and M.M. performed experiments. H.G.K., H.W.C., S.v.E., P.M., K.E., P.L., K.K., and D.F.K. analysed experiments. H.G.K., H.W.C., S.v.E., P.M., P.L., K.K. and D.F.K. wrote the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Hong-Gu Kang or Daniel F. Klessig.

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