Figure 5: Atmospheric circulation associated with the January 2016 melt event.

From: January 2016 extensive summer melt in West Antarctica favoured by strong El Niño

Figure 5

(a) Map showing the air temperature (shaded) and wind vectors at 500 hPa at 00 UTC on 12 January 2016 based on ERA-Interim. The thick black line outlines the 5,300 meter geopotential height contour separating cold polar air masses from warmer mid-latitudes air masses. (b) Sea surface temperature anomalies (shaded) overlaid with ERA-Interim 500 hPa geopotential height (Z500) anomalies (contour lines) in January 2016. Solid red, dashed blue and solid black contour lines represent (respectively) positive, negative and zero Z500 anomalies. Anomalies are calculated with respect to the 1971–2000 period. (c) Hovmöller diagram showing daily meridionally averaged Z500 anomalies within latitudes 50–80°S during January 2016. The anomalies are with respect to the 1979–2016 January monthly mean.