Figure 4: Surface energy budget at WAIS Divide in January 2016.

From: January 2016 extensive summer melt in West Antarctica favoured by strong El Niño

Figure 4: Surface energy budget at WAIS Divide in January 2016.
Figure 4

(a) Downward (LW↓) and upward (LW↑) longwave radiation fluxes. (b) Downward (LW↓) and upward (LW↑) shortwave radiation fluxes. (c) Net radiation flux (LW↓ LW↑ + SW↓ SW↑). (d) Net turbulent flux, calculated as the sum of sensible (SHF) and latent (LHF) fluxes, where positive is energy transfer away from the surface to the atmosphere. (e) Total net energy flux into the ground (snowpack) calculated as net radiation minus net turbulent fluxes. The green crosses represent the SSMIS 19 GHz horizontally polarized brightness temperatures measured from space at the location of WAIS Divide.