Figure 3: Cloud, moisture and temperature observations at WAIS Divide during January 2016.

From: January 2016 extensive summer melt in West Antarctica favoured by strong El Niño

Figure 3

(a,b) Vertical profiles of temperature perturbation and water vapour mixing ratio based on 6-hourly radiosoundings. The temperature perturbation is calculated as the difference between the measured temperature and the mean temperature during the period spanning 4 December 2015 to 18 January 2016 (duration of the field campaign). (c) Precipitable water vapour (PWV) and cloud liquid water path (CLWP) estimated from microwave radiometer measurements. (d,e) Vertical profiles of attenuated backscatter and depolarization ratio based on micropulse lidar measurements from 12 January 2016. For all vertical profiles, the height is with respect to the ground level (1,801 m above sea level).