Figure 6 : Models of lateral DNA transfer between eukaryotes and bacteriophages.

From: Eukaryotic association module in phage WO genomes from Wolbachia

Figure 6

(a) The eukaryotic cell can harbour multiple microbes capable of horizontal gene transfer. Genetic transfers between eukaryotes and bacteriophages can, in theory, occur (b) directly between eukaryotic chromosomes and phage genomes; (c) indirectly between eukaryotic and Wolbachia chromosomes; or (d) indirectly between eukaryotic chromosomes and intermediary entities, such as eukaryotic viruses and other intracellular bacteria.