Treatments that target immune checkpoints, such as the one mediated by programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1, have been approved for treating human cancers with durable clinical benefit1,2. However, many cancer patients fail to respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment, and the underlying mechanism(s) is not well understood3–5. Recent studies revealed that response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade might correlate with PD-L1 expression levels in tumor cells6,7. Hence, it is important to mechanistically understand the pathways controlling PD-L1 protein expression and stability, which can offer a molecular basis to improve the clinical response rate and efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in cancer patients. Here, we report that PD-L1 protein abundance is regulated by cyclin D-CDK4 and the Cullin 3SPOP E3 ligase via proteasome-mediated degradation. Inhibition of CDK4/6 in vivo elevates PD-L1 protein levels, largely by inhibiting cyclin D–CDK4-mediated phosphorylation of SPOP and thereby promoting SPOP degradation by APC/CCdh1. Loss-of-function mutations in SPOP compromise ubiquitination-mediated PD-L1 degradation, leading to increased PD-L1 levels and reduced numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in mouse tumors and in primary human prostate cancer specimens. Notably, combining CDK4/6 inhibitor treatment with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy enhances tumor regression and dramatically improves overall survival rates in mouse tumor models. Our study uncovers a novel molecular mechanism for regulating PD-L1 protein stability by a cell cycle kinase and reveals the potential for using combination treatment with CDK4/6 inhibitors and PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade to enhance therapeutic efficacy for human cancers.