Previous investigations have combined transcriptional and genetic analyses in human cell lines1,2,3, but few have applied these techniques to human neural tissue4,5,6,7,8. To gain a global molecular perspective on the role of the human genome in cortical development, function and ageing, we explore the temporal dynamics and genetic control of transcription in human prefrontal cortex in an extensive series of post-mortem brains from fetal development through ageing. We discover a wave of gene expression changes occurring during fetal development which are reversed in early postnatal life. One half-century later in life, this pattern of reversals is mirrored in ageing and in neurodegeneration. Although we identify thousands of robust associations of individual genetic polymorphisms with gene expression, we also demonstrate that there is no association between the total extent of genetic differences between subjects and the global similarity of their transcriptional profiles. Hence, the human genome produces a consistent molecular architecture in the prefrontal cortex, despite millions of genetic differences across individuals and races. To enable further discovery, this entire data set is freely available (from Gene Expression Omnibus: accession GSE30272; and dbGaP: accession phs000417.v1.p1) and can also be interrogated via a biologist-friendly stand-alone application (http://www.libd.org/braincloud).
We thank the families who donated tissue to make this study possible. We also thank the Offices of the Chief Medical Examiner of the District of Columbia, and of the Commonwealth of Virginia, Northern District, and the National Institute of Child and Health Development Brain and Tissue Bank for their collaboration. We thank R. McKay, N. Schork, F. McMahon and S. Zeger for their consultations on many issues, L. Marchionni for his assistance in assembling functional gene groups, as well as A. Deep-Soboslay, L. B. Bigelow, L. Wang, R. Buerlein, H. Choxi, V. Imamovic, Y. Snitkovsky, J. D. Paltan-Ortiz, J. Sirovatka, K. Becker, E. Lehrman and R. Vakkalanka for their contributions to this work.
This file contains Supplementary Tables 1-8 comprising: Table 1 Correlations of expression trajectories (slope of expression change across age) across the different age stages analyzed here, p-values, and N’s are also included, as are different filtering criteria; Table 2 List of all microarray probes showing BOTH significant change with age during fetal development AND significant change with age during infancy; Table 3 Full listing of functional gene groups enriched in each of the four patterns of expression described in Fig. 2A; Table 4 Individual gene details for synaptic and axonal genes highlighted in Fig. 2A; Table 5 Listing of individual genes found in the fetal:aging and fetal:AD expression trajectory reversals; Table 6 Listing of individual SNP:expression associations which reached genome-wide significance in the analysis including all subjects as well as analyses including only African American and only Caucasian subjects; Table 7 Demographic and tissue resource details for all subjects in the collection and Table 8 Taqman qPCR verification of microarray expression profiles.