Systematic mapping of protein–protein interactions, or ‘interactome’ mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes1,2 and then expanding to the scale of the proteome3,4,5,6,7. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties8,9, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein–protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of ∼8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected ∼2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of ∼78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by ∼70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.
This paper is dedicated to the memory of Stan Korsmeyer. We thank members of the Vidal laboratory and the participants of the ORFeome Meeting for discussions; the sequencing staff at Agencourt Biosciences for technical assistance; E. Smith for his help with the figures; C. McCowan, A. Bird, T. Clingingsmith and C. You for administrative assistance; and E. Benz, S. Korsmeyer, D. Livingston, P. McCue, J. Song, B. Rollins and the DFCI Strategic Planning Initiative for support. Our human interactome project is supported by the DFCI High-Tech Fund (S. Korsmeyer), an Ellison Foundation grant awarded to M.V., an NIH/NCI grant awarded to S. Korsmeyer, S. Orkin, G. Gilliland and M.V., an ‘interactome mapping’ grant from NIH/NHGRI and NIH/NIGMS awarded to F.P.R. and M.V., and a W.M. Keck Foundation grant awarded to E. Benz, J. Marto, F.P.R. and M.V. Other support includes Taplin Funds for Discovery (F.P.R., F.D.G. and G.F.B), a 2003 NSF Fellowship (D.S.G) and funding from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique, Belgium (M.D.). Author Contributions Experiments and data analyses were coordinated by J.F.R., T.H. and K.V. High-throughput ORF cloning and yeast two-hybrid screens were performed by J.F.R., T.H.K., A.D., N.L., N.A.G., J.R. and J.L. J.F.R developed the high-throughput yeast two-hybrid strategy. Computational analyses were performed by T.H., K.V., G.F.B., F.D.G., N.K., P.L., D.S.G., L.V.Z., S.L.W. and G.F. Co-affinity purification experiments were performed by M.D., C.S., J.F.R., S.M., M.B., S.L. and J.S.A. C.F., E.L., S.C. and C.B. provided laboratory support. R.S.S., J.V., H.Y.Z., A.S. and M.E.C. helped with the overall interpretation of the data. DNA sequencing was performed by S.B., R.S. and L.D.S. The manuscript was written by J.F.R., K.V., M.E.C., D.E.H., F.P.R. and M.V. The project was conceived by M.V. and co-directed by D.E.H., F.P.R. and M.V.
List of all human ORFs in Space-I that were tested for Y2H interactions.
List of CCSB-HI1 and LCI binary interactions along with annotation.
List of CCSB-HI1 and LCI interactions that were tested in co-AP experiments.
List of over-represented and under-represented Pfam-A domains in CCSB-HI1 and LCI data sets.
Analysis of overlap between CCSB-HI1 or LCI-interacting protein-pairs with other shared gene- or protein-pair characteristics.
Statistics of CCSB-HI1interactions between proteins in different evolutionary classes.
List of 172 MCODE-generated clusters from the CCSB-HI1 network and the combined CCSB-HI1/LCI and CCSB-HI1/LC networks.
Potentially novel associations of proteins with genetic disorders as revealed by the CCSB-HI1 interaction data set.