Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

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Inflammatory responses in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

Fudong Liu and Louise D McCullough

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Figure 1.

Schematic diagram of inflammatory responses in ischemic stroke. When stroke occurs, microglia are activated and develop macrophage-like capabilities including phagocytosis, cytokine and chemokine production, antigen presentation and the release of MMPs that weaken the BBB. As a result, peripheral leukocytes infiltrate into the brain, leading to exacerbation of inflammation and neuronal injury. MG, microglia; MP, macrophage; NE, neuron; NP, neutrophil; LC, lymphocyte; MN, monocyte; EC, erythrocyte.

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