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Advanced analytical electron microscopy for lithium-ion batteries

Danna Qian, Cheng Ma, Karren L More, Ying Shirley Meng and Miaofang Chi

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Figure 1.

State-of-the-art (S)TEM techniques and their applications in battery research.26, 62, 63, 69 All figures have been reproduced with permission. STEM, scanning transmission electron microscopy; TEM, transmission electron microscopy.

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Figure 2.

HAADF-STEM images of Li-excess layered materials (a) at the pristine state and (b) after 10 cycles.27 (c, d) EELS comparison of the particle surface and bulk for the pristine and cycled materials.26 (e) Spatially resolved EELS O-K edges from the surface to the bulk in the cycled Li-excess layered material.29 All figures have been reproduced with permission. HAADF, high-angle annular dark field; STEM, scanning transmission electron microscopy.

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Figure 3.

(a) Top: schematic of the probable configuration of FeLi with a higher Fe oxidation state in LiFePO4. Bottom: (left) EELS data of FeLi and the Fe in bulk. (right) Compared Fe L3/L2 ratios with different iron compounds as the references.35 (b) ABF image of half-charged LiFePO4 showing the Li staging.70 (c) BF and (d) false-color elemental map of the charged FeF2 with Fe (green) and LiF (red), showing an interconnected network.42 All figures have been reproduced with permission.

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Figure 4.

(a) HAADF and (b) ABF images of local clustering of the A-site vacancies and O4 square window lithium in LLTO.55 (c) HAADF images of a grain boundary in LLTO.54 EELS data of (d) Li-K and (e) Ti-L2,3 edges for the grain boundary and the bulk of LLTO.54 All figures have been reproduced with permission. HAADF, high-angle annular dark field.

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Figure 5.

(a) Schematic of the open-cell configuration.62 (b) The high density of dislocations emerging from the reaction front was revealed in a single SnO2 nanowire.62 All figures have been reproduced with permission.

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Figure 6.

(a) Schematic of the liquid-cell configuration.63 (b, c) In situ observation of the inhomogeneous lithiation, the lithium metal dendritic growth, and the solid–electrolyte interface formation.22 (d) An example of the all-solid-state microbattery with the configuration of Au (current collector)/SnO2 (anode)/Li3.4V0.6Si0.4O4 (electrolyte)/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (cathode)/Pt (current collector).67 (e, f) The EELS mapping of Ni, V, Li and Li intensity of the microbattery in (d).67 All figures have been reproduced with permission.

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