Original Contribution

The American Journal of Gastroenterology (2000) 95, 2285–2295; doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2000.03248.x

There is a Retraction (1 May 2010) associated with this article.

Enterocolitis in children with developmental disorders

A J Wakefield FRCS1,2, A Anthony PhD, MBBS, MSc2, S H Murch PhD, FRCP, FRCPCH3, M Thomson MBChB, MRCP, FRCPCH3, S M Montgomery PhD2, S Davies MRCPath2, J J O'Leary MD, DPhil, MRCPath4, M Berelowitz FRCPsych5 and J A Walker-Smith MD, FRCP, FRACP, FRCPCH3

  1. 1University Department of Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Royal Free Campus, London, United Kingdom
  2. 2University Department of Histopathology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Royal Free Campus, London, United Kingdom
  3. 3University Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Royal Free Campus, London, United Kingdom
  4. 4University Department of Paediatric Psychiatry, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Royal Free Campus, London, United Kingdom
  5. 5University Department of Pathology, Coombe Women's Hospital and Trinity College, Dublin, Eire, Ireland

Correspondence: Dr Andrew J Wakefield, FRCS, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Study Group, Department of Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School (Royal Free Campus), Hampstead, London NW3 2QG, UK

Received 28 July 1999; Revised  0000; Accepted 25 February 2000.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

 

Intestinal pathology, i.e., ileocolonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH) and mucosal inflammation, has been described in children with developmental disorders. This study describes some of the endoscopic and pathological characteristics in a group of children with developmental disorders (affected children) that are associated with behavioral regression and bowel symptoms, and compares them with pediatric controls.

METHODS:

 

Ileocolonoscopy and biopsy were performed on 60 affected children (median age 6 yr, range 3–16; 53 male). Developmental diagnoses were autism (50 patients), Asperger's syndrome (five), disintegrative disorder (two), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (one), schizophrenia (one), and dyslexia (one). Severity of ileal LNH was graded (0–3) in both affected children and 37 developmentally normal controls (median age 11 yr, range 2–13 yr) who were investigated for possible inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Tissue sections were reviewed by three pathologists and scored on a standard proforma. Data were compared with ileocolonic biopsies from 22 histologically normal children (controls) and 20 children with ulcerative colitis (UC), scored in an identical manner. Gut pathogens were sought routinely.

RESULTS:

 

Ileal LNH was present in 54 of 58 (93%) affected children and in five of 35 (14.3%) controls (p < 0.001). Colonic LNH was present in 18 of 60 (30%) affected children and in two of 37 (5.4%) controls (p < 0.01). Histologically, reactive follicular hyperplasia was present in 46 of 52 (88.5%) ileal biopsies from affected children and in four of 14 (29%) with UC, but not in non-IBD controls (p < 0.01). Active ileitis was present in four of 51 (8%) affected children but not in controls. Chronic colitis was identified in 53 of 60 (88%) affected children compared with one of 22 (4.5%) controls and in 20 of 20 (100%) with UC. Scores of frequency and severity of inflammation were significantly greater in both affected children and those with UC, compared with controls (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

 

A new variant of inflammatory bowel disease is present in this group of children with developmental disorders.